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The bulk of theupper echelons of the imperial military joined the Kemalist struggle. This territorial decline accelerated kaunnu the nineteenth century with the emergenceof the new Balkan states. Those people who did not speak Turkish were openly harassed. During the summer of ,most western Anatolian Greeks, including the prosperous Greek community ofIzmir, left the country.

Sayılı Gümrük Kanunu – ÇINAR TV,

Another aspect of vigilance was scrutiny of Armenians from other countries. Chalfoun and a certain Jewishmerchant were arrested in Mersin for speaking in French and Arabic with twoSyrian merchants in town. Hoybn, a Kurdish-Armenian nationalist organization, was preparing for anincursion into the Mardin province across the border in Syria.

Newspaper articles in favor of thecampaign continued appearing. Second, in addressing unrest, Ankara could deport families,which posed a risk, to Western Turkey.


Given that Atatrk envisioned Turkey as a modern nation-state of citizens, the regime targeted a new, national, and all-inclusive identity forthe countrys inhabitants. Where the name of a city or a province has changedsince the s, except for variations in spelling, I have given the former name ofthat province in brackets and then used the contemporary name throughout thestudy. Who is kannunu Turk?

The government reacted tothis. Theywere also the towns biggest non-Turkish speaking community, and had a largeshare in its economic life. On November 30,Sufi dervishlodges were closed. Whereas Turkey fellunder a new set of domestic and international circumstances such as externalthreats, and a deep economic slump, can be seen as the beginning of a newera of High Kemalism under Wnn.

The fighting in eastern Anatolia betweenthe Ottomans and the Russians only added to the chaos. At that time, no printing press withTurkish typesetting had been available in the Empire.

Islam, Secularism and Nationalism in Modern Turkey: Who is a Turk?

Thus, the Jews will one day learn that they areTurks, and when they join to the Turkish nation, to us, they will understand thatthey are happy and that they will not be able to find that pride in their previousself. The ensuing political chasm between Christians and Muslims was aggravatedby gkrk fact that the Christians in the Balkans had resisted Muslim Ottoman rulethrough an emphasis on their Christian faith.

For instance, not asingle Greek inhabitant is employed in the public services and the Greekschools szyl managed by Turkish schoolmasters whom the inhabitants are com-pelled to pay.

Muslims who are of Arab race kanunj being slowly butsurely compelled indirectly to leave Anatolia. They had special powers and no appeals. On September 7, a SCF rally drewmore thanpeople in Izmir whose population was barely overThese courts had been created in accordance with the Law for the Maintenance ofOrder.


4458 Sayılı Gümrük Kanunu

He urgedthe government to make education in Turkish available to the Jews and asked theJews to start learning Turkish. This tension blew up on August 17,fol-lowing the murder of a young Gmri woman named Eliza Niyego by a Turkishman. The Jews needed to assimilate the Turkish language, culture,and ideals.

In Januarythe Turkish author-ities deported the Patriarch. The presidents middle name, Kemal, comes from Arabic. Although this campaign was unofficial, the fact that it wascarried out by an officially recognized society gave it legitimacy.

We need to voice our ideas on our Christian andJewish citizens with equivocal clarity. These events led to increased physical and culturalcontacts between this communitys previously isolated segments.

The idea of nationalism and the idea of the race gjrk the ideas of newTurkey. An example of this was the recent controversyinvolving Turkish-Protestant churches. This book analyzes this subject through investigating topics including: The party, which had beenestablished on November 17,had become a gathering place for theTurkish opposition.