Bottom up and top down processing psychology examples of dual relationship

OpenPSYC: Introduction to Psychology: Bottom-up vs. Top-down Processing

bottom up and top down processing psychology examples of dual relationship

For example, in the classic study of Bransford and Johnson () of double blind procedures) have been designed to reduce some of the potential Top- Down and Bottom-Up Influences on Observation: Evidence from Cognitive. data from cognitive psychology and neuroscience on the processes involved in the early. These are the top-down processing and the bottom-up processing. Psychology > . Psychologist E.J Gibson criticized the explanation of Gregory regarding visual illusions as they are merely artificial examples, not images that can be found. Bottom-up processing is stimulus-driven processing whereas top-down processing is For example, during bottom-up processing of a word, we notice the . During the final double period, students tried to apply the concepts from the . Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition –

In contrast, the ability to anticipate others' emotions facilitates our behavioral response to the sensory world by promoting efficient sensory processing of stimuli that are congruent with expectations.

bottom up and top down processing psychology examples of dual relationship

Recent theoretical Summerfield and Egner, and computational Wyart et al. Whereas expectation facilitates visual perception by increasing the prior likelihood that a subset of visual information will occur, attention reduces the computational burden by prioritizing processing of a particular subset of visual information on the basis of its behavioral significance Summerfield and Egner, Recent explanations have described the difference between attention and expectation in the context of signal-to-noise detection where enhanced signal-to-noise precision can be a result of increased signal or reduced noise Wyart et al.

Cues predicting the relevant location attentional cues of a to-be-detected signal primarily increase signal-to-noise precision by suppressing noise; whereas, cues predicting greater signal probability expectation cues increase precision by elevating signal Wyart et al.

Top-down modulation of the perception of other people in schizophrenia and autism

The top-down effects of attention and expectation do not operate only at the level of perception but can also modulate our actions. One example of this is the modulation of imitation by social context.

Individuals imitate more when in a positive social context Lakin and Chartrand, and simple social ostensive cues such as direct eye-gaze affect automatic imitation mechanisms: Even pro-social, compared to non-social, priming that is subliminal results in significantly higher levels of automatic imitation Leighton et al.

bottom up and top down processing psychology examples of dual relationship

For example, Leighton et al. Despite reporting no awareness of the underlying theme, individuals who had rearranged the positive social words exhibited higher levels of automatic imitation than individuals who had rearranged the anti-social words.

bottom up and top down processing psychology examples of dual relationship

Such facilitation of imitation according to social context is likely a key component in the development of smooth and harmonious social interactions: Neural mechanisms of top-down modulation of social perception In recent years a number of studies have investigated the neural mechanisms that underpin the top-down modulation of social perception.

Attention The modulatory effects of attention are thought to proceed via feedback connections from frontal and parietal regions including the superior parietal lobule, intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and supplementary eye fields Corbetta et al.

Top-Down VS Bottom-Up Processing

Such feedback connections are thought to play a role in amplifying activity in stimulus-specific neural regions Kastner and Ungerleider, ; Pessoa et al. So, what is bottom-up processing? Bottom-up processing basically begins with the stimulus, so let's imagine that we're looking at something, or let's say I'm looking at a banana.

The banana is sitting there and it influences what we perceive. So, stimulus influences what we perceive, our perception.

bottom up and top down processing psychology examples of dual relationship

So, if I know absolutely nothing about something, then the stimulus or whatever it is I'm looking at, yet I don't know anything about, I've never seen it, I don't have any preconceived cognitive constructs about what it is I'm looking at. The stimulus basically is influencing my perception. So, for example let's imagine that I'm looking at a cockpit of a plane.

  • Bottom-up vs. top-down processing
  • Top-Down VS Bottom-Up Processing
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I'm not a pilot, so I'm not really too familiar with everything and everything kinda looks fairly confusing. So, basically all the different stimuli, so this stimulus, a bunch of gauges, and this rudder-looking thing, I'm basically looking at all the different little parts of something that is new and novel to me, and trying to kind of comprehend what it is I'm looking at.

Top-down modulation of the perception of other people in schizophrenia and autism

So, this is bottom-up. This is when you start with no preconceived idea of what it is that you're looking at, and allow the stimulus to influence your perception of what it is that you're looking at.

So, bottom-up processing is data-driven, and your perception of what it is that you're looking at directs your cognitive awareness of the object.

bottom up and top down processing psychology examples of dual relationship

So, in contrast, top-down processing basically uses your background knowledge, so uses your background knowledge to influence perception. So, let's look at this example over here.