Partition of India - Wikipedia
Many have wondered why the British and Indian leaders did not delay by followers of the League in support of the demand for Pakistan. In all of these conflicts the British colonial government remained. Within months, India and Pakistan were embroiled in a war over Kashmir, of British imperial policy: the colonial project of "divide et impera". The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between and The whole was also informally called the Indian Empire. . The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India, Pakistan, and .. held in the capacity of representing the Crown in relations with the Indian princely states.
Top The Indian National Congress The foundation of the Indian National Congress in as an all India, secular political party, is widely regarded as a key turning point in formalising opposition to the Raj.
It developed from its elite intellectual middle-class confines, and a moderate, loyalist agenda, to become by the inter-war years, a mass organisation. It was an organisation which, despite the tremendous diversity of the sub-continent, was remarkable in achieving broad consensus over the decades. Also split within Congress were those who advocated violence and those who stressed non-violence.
Yet it was not a homogenous organisation and was often dominated by factionalism and opposing political strategies. This was exemplified by its splintering in into the so-called 'moderate' and 'extremist' wings, which reunited 10 years later.
Another example were the 'pro-changers' who believed working the constitutional structures to weaken it from within and 'no-changers' who wanted to distance themselves from the Raj during the s.
There was also a split within Congress between those who believed that violence was a justifiable weapon in the fight against imperial oppression whose most iconic figure was Subhas Chandra Bose, who went on to form the Indian National Armyand those who stressed non-violence. The towering figure in this latter group was Mahatma Gandhi, who introduced a seismic new idiom of opposition in the shape of non-violent non-cooperation or 'satyagraha' meaning 'truth' or 'soul' force'.
Gandhi oversaw three major nationwide movements which achieved varying degrees of success inand in These mobilised the masses on the one hand, while provoking the authorities into draconian repression. Much to Gandhi's distress, self-restraint among supporters often gave way to violence. Top Reasons for independence The British Raj unravelled quickly in the s, perhaps surprising after the empire in the east had so recently survived its greatest challenge in the shape of Japanese expansionism.
The reasons for independence were multifaceted and the result of both long and short term factors. The pressure from the rising tide of nationalism made running the empire politically and economically very challenging and increasingly not cost effective. This pressure was embodied as much in the activities of large pan-national organisations like the Congress as in pressure from below - from the 'subalterns' through the acts of peasant and tribal resistance and revolt, trade union strikes and individual acts of subversion and violence.
With US foreign policy pressurising the end of western imperialism, it seemed only a matter of time before India gained its freedom. There were further symptoms of the disengagement from empire. European capital investment declined in the inter-war years and India went from a debtor country in World War One to a creditor in World War Two. Britain's strategy of a gradual devolution of power, its representation to Indians through successive constitutional acts and a deliberate 'Indianisation' of the administration, gathered a momentum of its own.
As a result, India moved inexorably towards self-government. The actual timing of independence owed a great deal to World War Two and the demands it put on the British government and people. The Labour party had a tradition of supporting Indian claims for self-rule, and was elected to power in after a debilitating war which had reduced Britain to her knees. Furthermore, with US foreign policy pressurising the end of western subjugation and imperialism, it seemed only a matter of time before India gained its freedom.
Top Partition and religion The growth of Muslim separatism from the late 19th century and the rise of communal violence from the s to the virulent outbreaks ofwere major contributory factors in the timing and shape of independence. However, it was only from the late s that it became inevitable that independence could only be achieved if accompanied by a partition.
From Empire to Independence: The British Raj in India 1858-1947
This partition would take place along the subcontinent's north-western and north-eastern boundaries, creating two sovereign nations of India and Pakistan.
The Muslim League failed to achieve the confidence of the majority of Muslims in the elections of From the late 19th century, some of its political elites in northern India felt increasingly threatened by British devolution of power, which by the logic of numbers would mean the dominance of the majority Hindu community.
Seeking power and a political voice in the imperial structure, they organised themselves into a party to represent their interests, founding the Muslim League in They achieved something of a coup by persuading the British that they needed to safeguard the interests of the minorities, a demand that fed into British strategies of divide and rule.
The inclusion of separate electorates along communal lines in the Act, subsequently enlarged in every successive constitutional act, enshrined a form of constitutional separatism.
While there is no denying that Islam and Hinduism were and are very different faiths, Muslims and Hindus continued to co-exist peaceably. There were, however, occasional violent outbursts which were driven more often than not by economic inequities. Even politically, the Congress and the League cooperated successfully during the Khilafat and Non Cooperation movements in Although Congress strove to stress its secular credentials with prominent Muslim members - for example, Maulana Azad served as its president through World War Two - it is criticised for failing to sufficiently recognise the importance of a conciliatory position towards the League in the inter-war years, and for its triumphant response to Congress's election victory.
The Muslim League advocated the idea of Pakistan in its annual session inyet the idea did not achieve any political reality at the time. Furthermore, the League failed to achieve the confidence of the majority of the Muslim population in the elections of Top Hasty transfer of power The lack of confidence in the Muslim League among the Muslim population was to be dramatically reversed in the elections. The intervening years saw the rise of Jinnah and the League to political prominence through the successful exploitation of the wartime insecurities of the British, and the political vacuum created when the Congress ministries which had unanimously come to power in resigned en masse to protest at the government's unilateral decision to enter India into the war without consultation.
The creation of Pakistan as a land for Muslims nevertheless left a sizeable number of Muslims in an independent India. The rejuvenated League skilfully exploited the communal card. At its Lahore session inJinnah made the demand for Pakistan into its rallying cry. The ensuing communal violence, especially after Jinnah declared 'Direct Action Day' in Augustput pressure on the British government and Congress to accede to his demands for a separate homeland for Muslims.
History History The region of Pakistan was one of the cradles of civilisation. Stone-age hunter-gatherers lived on the Potohar plateau and in the Soan Valley in northern Punjabor more years ago.
Excavations on the Balochistan plateau show a more advanced culture which flourished from to BCE. At Kot Diji in the Khairpur district, an early bronze age culture developed in this period. These early civilisations reached their peak in the Indus valley cities, of which Harappa is the most notable.
These societies had mastered town planning and pictographic writing. Later, Mauryans from India ruled the northern Punjab area, to be replaced by Bactrian Greeks from Afghanistan and central Asian tribes. Different religions prevailed in turn: Buddhism under the MauryansHinduism and, with Arab conquest in the eighth century, Islam.
Two main principalities emerged under Arab rule, that of al- Mansurah and that of Multan. The Ghaznarid sultans gained ascendancy in Punjab in the 11th century. The subsequent ascendancy of the Moghuls, who originated in Central Asia, lasted from to ; their rule lingered nominally until They established a sophisticated imperial administration and left a rich legacy of forts and walled cities, gardens and gateways, mosques and tombs.
- Partition of India
- The Hidden Story of Partition and its Legacies
- The Partition: The British game of 'divide and rule'
In the early 17th century European traders arrived on the subcontinent. Through the East India Company, the British became the dominant force.
India and Pakistan win independence - HISTORY
After the unsuccessful uprising against Britain ofthe British took direct control. The All India Muslim League was founded in As the subcontinent moved towards independence, it became clear that Hindu and Muslim interests could not be reconciled.
The campaign to establish an independent Muslim state came to prominence in the s and 30s. It originally consisted of two parts, West Pakistan now Pakistan and East Pakistan now Bangladeshseparated by 1, km of Indian territory. Partition was followed by war with India over Kashmir and the mass migration of Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs to resettle within the new borders, an upheaval which led to violence, financial loss and death on a large scale.
Jinnah, who is honoured as the Quaid-i-Azam, or great leader, died in InPakistan became a federal republic. It has been under military rule for long periods. Inmartial law was declared and political parties abolished.
However, failure to win the war against India and accusations of nepotism and corruption undermined his position. Ayub Khan resigned in and power was taken over by General Yahya Khan, who in December held the first national elections in independent Pakistan. As a result of the military intervention that ensued, civil war broke out in the eastern region in ; the Indian army intervened in support of the Bengalis; Pakistan forces withdrew and Bangladesh became an independent state.