The debate surrounding the relationship between caste and class is discussed perspectives in India, maintaining that what exists in India is caste in class, not. Relationship between Caste and Class! Caste and class are both 'status groups' in Max “Weber's phraseology. A 'status group' is a collection of persons who. Caste and class are both 'status groups' in Max “Weber's phraseology. A 'status group' is a collection of persons who share a distinctive style of.
In Indian village, northern or southern, caste has a very important role in giving identification to the individual. Caste as a Cultural Phenomenon: Caste is associated with an autonomous form of cultural system or world view.
The basis of cultural system is: Caste as a Structural Phenomenon: The structural aspect of caste is stressed by functionalists who express structural and functional analysis of the caste system.
The basis of structural analysis is: The structural properties of caste like endogamy, caste, occupation and hierarchy have a direct linkage with social stratification.
Class and Caste and Difference between Class and Cast
The cultural aspects, on the other hand, are value loaded. While analysing rural stratification, it is observed that it has some specific features like co-operation among caste groups, following rules of endogamy and exogamy, occupational inter-dependency, caste association etc.
Ghanshyam Saha has conducted a study on caste sentiments, class formation and dominance in Gujarat and found that caste plays an important role In the field of politics, particularly at the time of voting during elections. Bihar has also similar experiences. It is confirmed from different studies that the village community is going to be divided into high caste and low caste due to reservation policy. For example — Brahmin is a caste and within Brahmins we find rich Brahmins and poor Brahmins.
Kolenda found in her study that, In Rural India, the importance of caste has decreased to a great extent. Instead of caste, the Importance of class is found. She has conducted her study in Kanya Kumari.
Categorically, Kolenda says that in Rural India middle class is emerging fast.
Relationship between Caste and Class
Jan Breman has conducted his study in Bardoli areas of Surat district of Gujarat. He found that government policies are mainly responsible for widening the gap between the rich and the poor. Capitalist mode of production is mainly responsible for the emergence of class structure in Rural India.
Breman and Kolenda both have the same opinion that class is emerging in Rural India. Shah in his study on Rural class structure in Gujarat found that ownership of land is the main index of social stratification.
Class and Caste System of Society
The owner cultivation and the owner tenant cultivation are the only two classes who own the land. The rest are the Landless labourers and they form proletariat group. Referring to this Leach has said that while caste assumes economic and political functions and competes with other castes, it defies caste principles. Gough and Richard Fox also hold the same position.
Yet another difference between caste and class is that caste has an organic character but class has a segmentary character. In caste system, upper castes compete with each other for the services of the lower castes but in the class system, lower classes compete with each other for the favour of the upper classes Leach, For example, even though Brahmins have no economic and political power, yet they are placed at the top in the caste hierarchy.
He says that if we accept this statement, it would mean that changes in control over economic resources can take place without causing changes in rank. This is only partially true.
Class and Caste System of Society
In his own study in Bisipara, he found that change in wealth is followed by change in rank Lastly, social mobility is not possible in caste system but in the class system, change in status is possible.
Majumdar in this context explained caste as a closed class.
This view is not accepted by M.