Kuora: Mao Zedong's legacy — and Deng Xiaoping's role in preserving it - SupChina
Profiles of Chinese leaders from Mao Zedong to Xi Jinping. Home Quizzes News Diary Updates. Culture. Festivals Customs Religion . However good relations with Russia collapsed in ➚ in the Sino-Soviet split. Mao's vision of . In Europe he met Deng Xiaoping and other major figures of the later PRC. He married. This Chinese Revolution quiz contains 20 multiple-choice questions on China under communist rule, from the Cultural Revolution to the death of Mao Zedong. Like Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai before him, Deng Xiaoping was among . who helped to engineer the normalization of relations with China.
Zhou Enlai Zhou Enlai was, for decades, one of the most prominent and respected leaders of the Communist movement. Born into an upper-class family, he was drawn into the vortex of Chinese politics during the May Fourth Movement.
In he traveled to Europe on a work-study program in which he met a number of future CCP leaders. He joined the Party in and returned to China inbecoming the political commissar of the Whampoa Military Academy in Canton during the first united front with the Nationalists. But Zhou was always most prominent during periods in which the CCP reached out to otherwise hostile political forces. After the founding of the People's Republic inZhou became premier of the Government Affairs later State Council and foreign minister.
In he acted as China's bridge to the nonaligned world at the Bandung Conference, and in the same year helped engineer initial contacts with the U. He passed the foreign minister portfolio to Chen Yi in but continued to play an active role in foreign policy. Zhou supported Mao Zedong in the latter's Cultural Revolution attack on the entrenched Party bureaucracy, and subsequently played a critical role in rebuilding political institutions and mediating numerous political quarrels.
With the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, Zhou advocated an opening to Japan and the West to counter the Russian threat. That same year Zhou was diagnosed as having cancer, and he began shedding some of his responsibilities, especially to Deng Xiaoping who was rehabilitated in April Zhou was also a strong advocate of modernization, particularly at the Fourth National People's Congress in January Amid radical attacks on him during the Anti-Confucius Campaign, Zhou entered the hospital during and died on January 8, Zhou continued to affect Chinese politics even after his death.
In Aprilthe removal of memorial wreaths placed in Tiananmen Square in Zhou's honor sparked riots that led to the second ousting of Deng Xiaoping. With the purge of the "Gang of Four" in Octoberhis policy of "four modernizations" received the full endorsement of the new leadership. His selected works were published in Decemberand three years later a memorial room for him was established in Mao's mausoleum. He held prominent positions in the government in the s and s, but he was removed from office and imprisoned during the years of the Cultural Revolution, His family was persecuted.
Deng Xiaoping reemerged as China's paramount leader shortly after the death of Mao Zedong in Deng Xiaoping's goal in was to set China back on the course of economic development that had been badly interrupted during the final years of Mao's leadership.
Deng's rallying cry became the "Four Modernizations," articulated by Zhou Enlai inwhich entailed the development of industry, agriculture, defense, and science and technology.
He set the course of reform by dismantling the communes set up under Mao and replaced them with the Household Responsibility System HRSwithin which each household must be held accountable to the state for only what it agrees to produce, and is free to keep surplus output for private use. In addition to this program, which was an incentive for households to produce more, Deng encouraged farmers to engage in private entrepreneurship and sideline businesses in order to supplement their incomes.
Deng Xiaoping said that "practice is the sole criterion of truth," and believed that only by experimenting with alternative forms of production and entrepreneurial activity would China find the best path for economic development.
Thus began China's experiments with capitalist methods of production. As Deng said, "it does not matter if a cat is black or white so long as it catches the mouse;" it no longer matters if an economic policy is capitalist or socialist, in other words, as long as it results in economic growth. Deng also wanted to set up an arrangement whereby leadership succession would take place according to legal guidelines rather than personality struggles.
In general, he hoped to establish a social and political order governed by "rule by law, not by man. Paramount Leader - Hua Guofeng was the Chinese leader during the transitional time between Mao Zedong 's death in and Deng Xiaoping 's rise to power in After serving 12 years under Marshall Zhu De in the Army he moved to take a Communist party role in Hua's competent implementation of the Cultural Revolution in Hunan province gained him Mao 's respect.
In the early s he rose to national power becoming a member of the Politburo and Vice Premier in under Zhou Enlai. After Zhou Enlai 's death Hua became acting Premier. When Deng fell from grace, Mao made him the official Premier. Mao saw him as a loyal supporter who would continue his vision; Mao is believed to have said 'With you in charge, I am at ease'.
When Mao died later in the Gang of Four sought to maintain their positions of power. It was Hua who arrested them and took on the top military and party roles. As Chairman of the People's Republic Hua stopped the worst excesses of the Cultural Revolution and sought reform using the model of a centralized Soviet style planned economy. His plans proved overly ambitious; he was opposed by Deng Xiaoping and by Deng had won the argument within the party and the PLA.
Deng and his supporters did not want to follow Mao's Thought in every way and condemned the Cultural RevolutionDeng had his own vision particularly with regard to market reform. However Hua repudiated his policies after his fall from power. Unlike the sad fate of his predecessor Liu Shaoqionly 12 years before, Hua continued in politics, remaining on the Central Committee until He had one wife and four children. History will probably judge him as a minor figure who acted as caretaker leader between the more influential figures of Mao and Deng.
His great achievement was to prevent the Gang of Four seizing power on Mao's death and lurching China into more chaos. Paramount Leader - Deng Xiaoping's legacy in China is huge. His strategy of softening and widening the strict Communist message is seen as crucial to China's economic revival in the last 30 years. A key period in Deng's life was spent in France in the s where Chinese men had been used for quasi-military roles in the first World War. Aged just 16, Deng arrived in France in Decemberwhere he worked in a steel plant on the outskirts of Paris.
It was in France that he met Zhou Enlai and other revolutionaries seeking to learn more about the West. While working on trains, in kitchens and in factories his spare time was spent studying western thought and science. He took to the game of bridge and gradually became involved in Communist party activities. The authorities eventually caught up with him, so in he fled to Moscow to avoid arrest.
After a year learning about Russian Communism he returned to China a committed communist with news of amazing political and technological developments in Europe. In he first met Mao Zedong at the Jiangxi Soviet. He took a full and well regarded part in the military campaigns against the Japanese and Nationalists and became Vice Premier to Zhou Enlai in But Deng suffered during Mao's comeback during the Cultural Revolution in He was forced to publicly criticize his failings, and went back to work in a steelworks.
People began to show their support for Deng by displaying small glass bottles — his given name means 'little bottle'. His friend Zhou Enlai helped save Deng from the fate that befell Liu Shaoqi and after the Nixon visit in he was back in power.
His rise faltered when Zhou died in preventing him from becoming Mao's successor. On Deng's return to power in he took China on a new route, after the unsuccessful attempt to transform China into a Marxist state.
He was the first to openly attack Mao's legacy and firmly steer China in a more market driven direction.
A convenient way to think of his leadership is that if Mao behaved like God, Deng behaved like an Emperor. The building of China's railways History The building of railways became a competitive scramble between foreign powers in the late 19th and early 20th century. Railways were seen as the key first step in opening up inland China for trade. Britain, France, Germany, Japan and America all invested in the building of them only for the investment to be lost in the following years of turmoil.
China was no longer isolated and could begin to trade on international markets. He became the acceptable face of Chinese Communism, pragmatic rather than dogmatic. In other words, following Marxist-Leninist theory is only one means to achieve an end, improving the lot of ordinary Chinese people is the only important end result. His reforms targeted the discredited Commune system and poor industrial infrastructure.
Support for small scale capitalism was introduced. It became no longer a 'crime' to try to better the situation for one's own family rather than the community as a whole. He reformed the education system so that students were credited for academic achievement rather than revolutionary fervor. Deng separated his private and public life, he married three times and had five children. He loved football soccer and French food. His leadership style was decisive but within a small ruling group and not presidential.
Any tendency to form a personality cult, such as Mao enjoyed, was suppressed. Although Deng took a back seat he made it clear that the suppression of the demonstration was the correct course. He seems to have seen it as a destabilizing movement with a strong echo of the Cultural Revolution that caused China, and Deng personally, such misery.
Deng held firm loyalty to the Chinese Communist Party as the unified, strong stabilizing force it has remained. He joined the Communist Party when only 14, he proved a loyal supporter of fellow Hunanese Mao Zedong in the s and took part in the Long March from Jiangxi to Shaanxi.
Chinese Revolution quiz #6
Along with Deng Xiaoping he suffered in the Cultural Revolution when he was given hard labor including breaking rocks. On Mao's death and Deng's rehabilitation he rose to power to become General Secretary and effective leader of the Party. His abandonment of Mao's philosophy went further than Deng. He encouraged and adopted some Western practices.
He openly questioned Marxist ideology and sought to extend accountability of the leadership. While Deng was paramount leader Hu remained his 'left hand', he rehabilitated many people who had been criticized under the Cultural Revolution. By the mid s Hu became critical of Deng himself and upset many senior figures by instigating anti-corruption investigations. It was the widespread student protests in demanding Western style reforms that led to Hu Yaobang's downfall.
Kuora: Mao Zedong’s legacy — and Deng Xiaoping’s role in preserving it
The elder, senior members were increasingly unhappy with Hu's apparent acceptance of the demonstrator's rights to protest and also the high speed of economic reform. Deng Xiaoping stepped in and removed him from the office of President although he remained as a member of the ruling SCP. His death on 15th April from heart failure sparked the student protests in Tiananmen Square which were brutally suppressed by Deng.
It was not until that he was rehabilitated as a great Chinese leader. He is now remembered as the leading reformer of his generation. Paramount Leader - Jiang Zemin remains an influential figure in Chinese politics from the time he was President and Paramount Leader He represents the head of the third generation of leaders after the formation of the People's Republic and the first not to come from a military background. Jiang was born in Yangzhou, Jiangsu province and was too young to take part in the war against Japanese occupation.
In he studied electrical engineering at Shanghai University, he then went to Moscow in the s and worked at a car factory. On return to China he gradually rose through the ranks of the communist party and in became Minister for Electronic industries. He was made mayor of Shanghai, an important position in a rapidly growing city.
This appointment gave him prominence at a National level. China built up a pre-eminent nation, with the greatest wealth, population and foreign trade. However by its end Europe had begun to make inroads in many areas and so marked a transition in world power.
Read more… His position strengthened after the Tiananmen Square Incident, Deng saw Jiang's handling of similar protests in Shanghai as firm but not brutal. Deng moved to promote him to the other key posts of President and head of the Armed services on Deng's semi-retirement in Knowledge of and the support of the PLA remained an essential requirement for leadership in China.
Jiang replaced Deng as ' paramount leader ' in He instituted a rethinking of policy after the Tiananmen Incident with a more effective method for spreading the party line. Deng did voice some criticism about the pace of economic reform that Jiang initiated, stimulating Jiang to declare China as a 'socialist market economy' rather than a communist one.
After Deng's retirement and then death in Jiang Zemin bolstered his power base by promoting some of his Shanghai supporters, most notably Zhu Rongji. He battled against rising crime and took measures to control the unprecedented flow of people to urban centers. Sometimes his avuncular personality led to criticism, he was not a distant revered leader like Mao, he delighted in jokes and informality. Following on from previous Paramount Leaders he made his own contribution to China's guiding principles.
After he stepped down inJiang has continued to exert influence on his successors from behind the scene and is now the leading elder statesman in China. Paramount Leader - Hu Jintao was the Paramount Leader of China and has been seen as an efficient bureaucrat leading China through a period of rapid economic development.
Hu Jintao was born in Taizhou, Jiangsu into a relatively poor family. His father suffered under the Cultural Revolution a fact that probably led to Hu's alignment with Deng Xiaoping 's faction. He did well at school at Taizhou and went on to Tsinghua UniversityBeijing studying engineering and marrying Liu Yongqing.
In he moved to Gansu to work on a hydro-electric plant as an engineer. In he began his political career, and with the help of central party initiatives to promote new talent, soon rose through the ranks of government. In he trained at the Central Party School in Beijing and then headed the Youth section of the party. The Repblic of China Modern History The years marked the difficult transition from centuries of Imperial dynastic rule to that of a Republic.
Sun Yatsen's dream of a democratic Republic was never achieved amidst the turmoil of the Japanese Occupation and then the Civil War with the Communists. Read more… By Hu Jintao was already being groomed as a potential leader by Deng Xiaoping and the other leaders; he joined the inner circle of the Standing Committee of the Politburo.
In he became a Vice-President and a smooth hand-over from Jiang Zemin took place in Like previous leaders he has made a modest contribution to extending the founding principles of the Peoples Republic.
Love the country; do it no harm. Serve the people; never betray them. Follow science; discard ignorance. Be diligent; not indolent. Be united, help each other; make no gains at others' expense. Be honest and trustworthy; do not sacrifice ethics for profit. Be disciplined and law-abiding; not chaotic and lawless. Live plainly, work hard; do not wallow in luxuries and pleasures. The delivery of principles like this go back as far as the Qing dynasty when Emperor Kangxi set out his sixteen maxims.
The fight against corruption has been an ongoing battle that appears to have been lost. Despite extensive use of the death penalty against corrupt officialscorruption is considered all pervasive. Placing a bribe has become an essential part of sealing a deal in China. Seen as lacking the charisma of previous leaders and being a creature of the Party machine, Hu's contribution is seen as just continuing the reform policies set in motion by Jiang Zemin.
He governed with caution and restraint, striving to balance the development across the country, reassuring underdeveloped areas that their time will come. He has married once and has a son and a daughter. His hobbies include dancing and table tennis. His father had friendly relations with the Dalai Lama and was jailed during the Cultural Revolution.