Meher Ali Shah - Wikipedia
Fauzia Wahab was a politician who served as the senior ex officio member and the In she married Wahab Siddiqui, a journalist and, later, a television In February , her husband died of a massive heart attack and her life took a . Minister Syed Qaim Ali Shah, Advisor to the Prime Minister on Interior Affairs. Benazir Bhutto was a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from to and again from to She was the first woman to head a democratic government in a Muslim Zulfikar was the son of Shah Nawaz Bhutto, a prominent politician who had served as Prime Minister of the Junagadh. Meher Ali Shah formally referred to as His Holiness, Huzoor Qibla e Aalam Tajdar-e-Golra Ala In the early part of the month of Safar A.H (April ), he had an and the reverberation of which was felt by every one who happened to touch the Meher Ali Shah; Rashid Ahmad Gangohi · Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi.
The council, which had been expanded to 60 members as part of reforms enacted by Minto, recommended legislation to the Viceroy. Only officials could vote in the council; non-official members, such as Jinnah, had no vote.
Throughout his legal career, Jinnah practised probate law with many clients from India's nobilityand in introduced the Wakf Validation Act to place Muslim religious trusts on a sound legal footing under British Indian law.
Two years later, the measure passed, the first act sponsored by non-officials to pass the council and be enacted by the Viceroy. He joined the following year, although he remained a member of the Congress as well and stressed that League membership took second priority to the "greater national cause" of an independent India.
In Aprilhe again went to Britain, with Gokhale, to meet with officials on behalf of the Congress. Gokhale, a Hindu, later stated that Jinnah "has true stuff in him, and that freedom from all sectarian prejudice which will make him the best ambassador of Hindu—Muslim Unity".
By coincidence, he was in Britain at the same time as a man who would become a great political rival of his, Mohandas Gandhia Hindu lawyer who had become well known for advocating satyagrahanon-violent non-cooperation, while in South Africa.
- Shahid Khaqan Abbasi
- Muhammad Ali Jinnah
- Fauzia Wahab
Jinnah attended a reception for Gandhi, and returned home to India in January Nevertheless, Jinnah worked to bring the Congress and League together.
Inwith Jinnah now president of the Muslim League, the two organisations signed the Lucknow Pactsetting quotas for Muslim and Hindu representation in the various provinces.
Although the pact was never fully implemented, its signing ushered in a period of co-operation between the Congress and the League. Along with political leaders Annie Besant and Tilak, Jinnah demanded " home rule " for India—the status of a self-governing dominion in the Empire similar to Canada, New Zealand and Australia, although, with the war, Britain's politicians were not interested in considering Indian constitutional reform.
British Cabinet minister Edwin Montagu recalled Jinnah in his memoirs, "young, perfectly mannered, impressive-looking, armed to the teeth with dialecticsand insistent on the whole of his scheme". She was the fashionable young daughter of his friend Sir Dinshaw Petitand was part of an elite Parsi family of Bombay. Rattanbai defied her family and nominally converted to Islamadopting though never using the name Maryam Jinnah, resulting in a permanent estrangement from her family and Parsi society.
The couple's only child, daughter Dinawas born on 15 August There was unrest across India, which worsened after the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsarin which British troops fired upon a protest meeting, killing hundreds.
In the wake of Amritsar, Gandhi, who had returned to India and become a widely respected leader and highly influential in the Congress, called for satyagraha against the British. Gandhi's proposal gained broad Hindu support, and was also attractive to many Muslims of the Khilafat faction. These Muslims, supported by Gandhi, sought retention of the Ottoman caliphatewhich supplied spiritual leadership to many Muslims. The caliph was the Ottoman Emperorwho would be deprived of both offices following his nation's defeat in the First World War.
Gandhi had achieved considerable popularity among Muslims because of his work during the war on behalf of killed or imprisoned Muslims. Gandhi's local style of leadership gained great popularity with the Indian people. Jinnah criticised Gandhi's Khilafat advocacy, which he saw as an endorsement of religious zealotry.
He opposed Gandhi, but the tide of Indian opinion was against him.Husband and Wife Relation - Syed Sarfraz Shah (Part-1)
At the session of the Congress in NagpurJinnah was shouted down by the delegates, who passed Gandhi's proposal, pledging satyagraha until India was independent. Jinnah did not attend the subsequent League meeting, held in the same city, which passed a similar resolution. Because of the action of the Congress in endorsing Gandhi's campaign, Jinnah resigned from it, leaving all positions except in the Muslim League. Jinnah sought alternative political ideas, and contemplated organising a new political party as a rival to the Congress.
He showed much skill as a parliamentarian, organising many Indian members to work with the Swaraj Partyand continued to press demands for full responsible government.
Inas recognition for his legislative activities, he was offered a knighthood by Lord Readingwho was retiring from the Viceroyalty. The review began two years early as Baldwin feared he would lose the next election which he did, in The Cabinet was influenced by minister Winston Churchillwho strongly opposed self-government for India, and members hoped that by having the commission appointed early, the policies for India which they favoured would survive their government.
A minority of Muslims, though, withdrew from the League, choosing to welcome the Simon Commission and repudiating Jinnah. Most members of the League's executive council remained loyal to Jinnah, attending the League meeting in December and January which confirmed him as the League's permanent president. At that session, Jinnah told the delegates that "A constitutional war has been declared on Great Britain.
Negotiations for a settlement are not to come from our side By appointing an exclusively white Commission, [ Secretary of State for India ] Lord Birkenhead has declared our unfitness for self-government. Jinnah, though he believed separate electorates, based on religion, necessary to ensure Muslims had a voice in the government, was willing to compromise on this point, but talks between the two parties failed.
He put forth proposals that he hoped might satisfy a broad range of Muslims and reunite the League, calling for mandatory representation for Muslims in legislatures and cabinets. These became known as his Fourteen Points.
He could not secure adoption of the Fourteen Points, as the League meeting in Delhi at which he hoped to gain a vote instead dissolved into chaotic argument. MacDonald desired a conference of Indian and British leaders in London to discuss India's future, a course of action supported by Jinnah. Three Round Table Conferences followed over as many years, none of which resulted in a settlement.
Jinnah was a delegate to the first two conferences, but was not invited to the last. His biographers disagree over why he remained so long in Britain—Wolpert asserts that had Jinnah been made a Law Lordhe would have stayed for life, and that Jinnah alternatively sought a parliamentary seat. From then on, Muhammad Jinnah would receive personal care and support from her as he aged and began to suffer from the lung ailments which would kill him. She lived and travelled with him, and became a close advisor.
Muhammad Jinnah's daughter, Dina, was educated in England and India. Jinnah later became estranged from Dina after she decided to marry a Christian, Neville Wadia from a prominent Parsi business family. Jinnah continued to correspond cordially with his daughter, but their personal relationship was strained, and she did not come to Pakistan in his lifetime, but only for his funeral.
InIndian Muslims, especially from the United Provincesbegan to urge Jinnah to return and take up again his leadership of the Muslim League, an organisation which had fallen into inactivity.
At Jinnah's request, Liaquat discussed the return with a large number of Muslim politicians and confirmed his recommendation to Jinnah. Full power remained in the hands of the Viceroy, however, who could dissolve legislatures and rule by decree. The League reluctantly accepted the scheme, though expressing reservations about the weak parliament. The Congress was much better prepared for the provincial elections inand the League failed to win a majority even of the Muslim seats in any of the provinces where members of that faith held a majority.
It did win a majority of the Muslim seats in Delhibut could not form a government anywhere, though it was part of the ruling coalition in Bengal. It was brought home to them, like a bolt of lightning, that even if the Congress did not win a single Muslim seat He secured the right to speak for the Muslim-led Bengali and Punjabi provincial governments in the central government in New Delhi "the centre". He restructured the League along the lines of the Congress, putting most power in a Working Committee, which he appointed.
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Choudhary Rahmat Ali published a pamphlet in advocating a state "Pakistan" in the Indus Valleywith other names given to Muslim-majority areas elsewhere in India. The failure of the Congress leadership to disavow Hindu communalists worried Congress-supporting Muslims. Nevertheless, the Congress enjoyed considerable Muslim support up to about The Muslim League's claims that it alone could safeguard Muslim interests thus received a major boost. Significantly it was only after this period of Congress rule that it [the League] took up the demand for a Pakistan state Ahmed suggests that Jinnah abandoned hope of reconciliation with the Congress as he "rediscover[ed] his own Islamic roots, his own sense of identity, of culture and history, which would come increasingly to the fore in the final years of his life".
Muslims should strengthen Jinnah's hands. They should join the Muslim League. Indian question, as is now being solved, can be countered by our united front against both the Hindus and the English. For the next fourteen years, she was a housewife and had four children.
She acted in Haseena Moin's drama serial Kohar as the cousin of the hero played by the model, Junaid Butt. She would consider it as her "favorite mistake". On 24 Mayshe was admitted to hospital in Karachi and died on 17 June Initially she was given charge of the Municipal Ward The PPP lost the elections and was confined to the opposition benches in the subsequent National Assembly.
InBenazir Bhutto nominated Wahab to become the Central Coordinator of the Human Rights Cell with responsibility for corresponding with human rights organisations abroad. She was also a senior member of the Finance Committee of the National Assembly that looked after the Assembly's budget.
Fauzia also represented her party on a study tour of the German Parliamentary System in However, her candidature was withdrawn in favour Naimatullah Khan. During the National Assembly of andshe was an active member of the opposition involved in a number of questions, calling attention notices, adjournment motions, resolutions and motions. She was also a mover of a number of bills including a bill on the environment and a ban on polythene bags. She took oath as a Treasury bench member on 6 March This committee was the second most active parliamentary committee after the Public Accounts Committee in the number of meetings held.
A crowd of nearly 3 million people had assembled outside Karachi's Jinnah International Airport.