Major Characters Impact on Chris McCandless by Courtney Belgrade on Prezi
Who was Jim Gallien? What was Jim Gallien's impression of Alex? McCandless stayed with Wayne for 3 days and rode out with his crew as they piloted . Walt had continued his relationship with Marcia in secret after he had Chris and. Jim Gallien was the man that drove Chris to the Stampede Trail and was the last person to see He was the last person to see Christopher McCandless alive. .. Franz had no relatives of his own and created a Father-Son type relationship. Who is Jim Gallien, and how did he meet McCandless? How did he meet: Bc Chris McCandless is not normal, and that is what he was thought to have been.
Based on results, the hypothesis may need to be refined and retested, over and over again, until the results cannot be disproved. Up to now, the hypothesis on McCandless appears to be: On what facts is this hypothesis based?
How do we know McCandless was doing well? Photos show an ever-increasingly gaunt McCandless. By McCandless's own account, there were days of no food. And his diet was low in fats. And so perhaps the above hypothesis is flawed. By pre-determining that McCandless was doing well, simply by counting the number of birds and squirrels he was eating, Krakauer and Penn are left looking for a dramatic precipitating factor that caused his ultimate starvation.
However, if one wants to identify a "scientific" cause for the death of Chris McCandless, then let's start with an appropriate hypothesis, grounded in the scientific method. We observe that McCandless died of starvation.
Our hypothesis then becomes: The result was that, despite some success hunting and gathering, McCandless was not able to secure enough food on a daily basis. To test this hypothesis, we calculated his energy expenditure and compared this to his caloric intake.
To assess his energy expenditure, we predicted the basal metabolic rate BMR of McCandless using a regression equation developed by the World Health Organization for young adult humans, age McCandless's caloric intake was estimated from his detailed day food journal. In the end, a day-by-day comparison of his energy expenditure BMR and his caloric intake showed a consistent caloric deficit, i.
It is believed he died on that same day. This empirical analysis of McCandless's energetic state shows a steady loss of weight. He may have gotten sick from one of his meals at the end of July "Extremely weak. The data show that he died of starvation because he couldn't meet his energetic needs over days. There is no need to devise a theory based on a botany mistake, or the ingestion of "toxic seeds.
However, these false explanations accomplish two things: Ironically, it could be argued that having Chris unable to correctly identify a plant, or having him so foolish as to be eating "enormous quantities" of mold, is actually to cast him as more "reckless and incompetent" rather than less, and belies both his intelligence and toughness, and his will to live. When we spoke with the Alaskan medical examiner who conducted the Chris McCandless autopsy, and asked him if he thought Chris might have been poisoned Chris did not burn his social security card In the current Hollywood version of the story, there is a scene where Chris cuts up all of his identification and burns his social security card.
Obviously, it is a powerful and symbolic visual. The problem is, it never happened. In the Krakauer book, as well, there is a scene where Chris leaves, among other things, eighty-five cents in loose change with Jim Gallien, the man who gave him a ride to the head of the Stampede Trail. It has also been suggested in many places, and generally understood, that Chris had no map with him while he was out at the bus.
It turns out this is also untrue. He did have a map, and although it may not have indicated the gauging station just downriver on the Teklanika, it certainly would have had the Denali park service road that can be reached from the bus side of the river, a road that crosses over the Tek and could have provided a way out for McCandless more on this below. Regarding the wallet, Healy resident Will Forsberg discovered it in McCandless's backpack, that had been left out in the bus following Chris's death.
Somehow the Alaska state troopers and investigators at the scene missed it. And so it now seems the two-week mystery and search for McCandless's identification, played out in newspapers all across the country, and ironically, the inspiration for much that has been said and written about him in the years that followed, was rather unnecessary.
Right there in the bus with him was a wallet that contained his social security card, birth certificate, driver's license, health card, voter identification, and three library cards. Most significantly, this new evidence seems to indicate that Chris had no "death wish," as some of his harshest detractors have claimed, and that in fact he intended to return to society at some point.
Will Forsberg found Chris's backpack in fall Interestingly, the language from the original Outside magazine article changed slightly when it was published in the book Into the Wild. In the original story, Krakauer writes that "he left the map in Gallien's truck, along with his watch, his comb, and all his money, which amounted to 85 cents.
What happened to the map?Wayne Westerberg travels back to Bus 142
Why the nuance of "what he said" was all his money? Was the reason for the latter that Krakauer suspected Chris had more than eighty-five cents on him, which would make sense considering he writes in another chapter that Chris had left Carthage twelve days earlier with "approximately one thousand dollars tucked in his boot" p.
Why was mention of the map removed? Well, perhaps because it is listed among the possessions returned to the McCandless family following Chris's death.
Curiously, however, Krakauer fails to mention this in either the original article or Into the Wild: You can read more about this article here. Krakauer was a mountaineer introduced to the 'sport' by his father at aged 8. He had a driving ambition like McCandless as well as a love for nature and the outdoors. He too spent some time in the wilderness alone and climbed Alaskan mountains as well as Everest which was the focus of his book Into Thin Air.
Krakauer is quoted as saying about his own adventures that "I got away with it. That's the only difference. He has said that he was obsessed by the story and researched it for 3 years before it was finished. At one stage he said he had a 'lead' from someone in Arizona, so he got into his pickup and drove from Alaska to Arizona to meet this person.
Krakauer also visited the Magic Bus where Chris was found with Bille and Walt McCandless Chris's parents 10 months after they had been informed of his death.
Krakauer had formed a strong bond with the McCandless family and in fact Carine trusted him the moment she met him. This foundation has made donations to countries as far away as Cambodia. Bille has been quoted as saying that they want to reach out to children and help them and their families. This is a journal entry by Krakauer in the visit book at the Magic Bus Krakauer visited the bus many times and this is another note in the Bus visit book: Chris introduces himself as Alex and shows Gallien a map of the Stampede Trail where he wants to go.
Because Alex appeared not to have enopugh equipment or supplies, Gallien gives Alex an old pair of gumboots rubber boots and a tuna sandwich. Thank you, Chris McCandless.
Upon entering, he smelled what he thought was rotting food and discovered "a lump" in a sleeping bag.
Chris McCandless Now I Walk Into The Wild Book
The hunter quickly radioed police, who arrived the following day. They found McCandless' decomposing body in the sleeping bag.
He had died of starvation sometime in August. First, he offered that McCandless was running the risk of a phenomenon known as " rabbit starvation ", from overrelying on lean game for nutrition. Swainsonine inhibits metabolism of glycoproteinswhich causes starvation despite ample caloric intake. Thomas Clausen, the chair of the chemistry and biochemistry department at UAFsaid, "I tore that plant apart.
There were no toxins. I'd eat it myself". Ronald Hamilton, a retired bookbinder at the Indiana University of Pennsylvania,  suggested a link between the symptoms described by McCandless and the poisoning of Jewish prisoners in the Nazi concentration camp in Vapniarca.
He put forward the proposal that McCandless starved to death because he was suffering from paralysis in his legs induced by lathyrismwhich prevented him from gathering food or hiking out. The ODAP, a toxic amino acid, had not been detected by the previous studies of the seeds because they had suspected and tested for a toxic alkaloid, rather than an amino acidand nobody had previously suspected that Hedysarum alpinum seeds contained this toxin.
The protein would be relatively harmless to someone who was well-fed and on a normal diet, but toxic to someone who was malnourished, physically stressed, and on an irregular and insufficient diet, as McCandless was. Results suggest that the seeds contained 0. In FebruaryKrakauer published a follow up article in The New Yorker that reported on scientific analysis of the H.
A report in Wilderness and Environmental Medicine  demonstrated relatively high levels of L- canavanine in Hedysarum alpinum seeds and suggests this as the toxic component in McCandless' diet, rather than ODAP, as originally supposed by Ronald Hamilton. In his New Yorker article Krakauer goes on to speculate that L-canavanine "was a contributing factor to" McCandless' death.
Known as "The Magic Bus", the International Harvester was abandoned by road workers in on the Stampede Trail where it remains today. A plaque in McCandless' memory is affixed to the interior.