The Roman Empire: in the First Century. The Roman Empire. Emperors. Augustus | PBS
Adopted by Caesar, Augustus (c BC – 14 AD / Reigned 31 BC – 14 AD) had to fight for his throne. One of these was led by his great-uncle, Julius Caesar. Unlike Caesar, one of Rome's military heroes, Augustus was sickly as a young boy. changing his name to Octavian (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus in Latin). He made adultery (when a married person has a sexual relationship with. Information about Augustus and Caesar. of the Julio-Claudians (who could trace some semblence of familial connection to Caesar the dictator). Octavian, the heir of Julius Caesar and first Roman Emperor is known by the name Augustus.
Antony besieged him at Mutina  and rejected the resolutions passed by the Senate to stop the fighting. The Senate had no army to enforce their resolutions. This provided an opportunity for Octavian, who already was known to have armed forces.
Both consuls were killed, however, leaving Octavian in sole command of their armies. However, the sources agree that enacting the proscriptions was a means by all three factions to eliminate political enemies. For example, Octavian allowed the proscription of his ally Cicero, Antony the proscription of his maternal uncle Lucius Julius Caesar the consul of 64 BCand Lepidus his brother Paullus.
Octavian was able to further his cause by emphasizing the fact that he was Divi filius"Son of the Divine". Mark Antony later used the examples of these battles as a means to belittle Octavian, as both battles were decisively won with the use of Antony's forces.
Gaul and the province of Hispania were placed in the hands of Octavian. Lepidus was left with the province of Africastymied by Antony, who conceded Hispania to Octavian instead.
The tens of thousands who had fought on the republican side with Brutus and Cassius could easily ally with a political opponent of Octavian if not appeased, and they also required land.
Augustus - HISTORY
Octavian chose the former. He returned Clodia to her mother, claiming that their marriage had never been consummated.
Fulvia decided to take action. Together with Lucius Antonius, she raised an army in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian. Lucius and Fulvia took a political and martial gamble in opposing Octavian, however, since the Roman army still depended on the triumvirs for their salaries. Lucius and his army were spared, due to his kinship with Antony, the strongman of the East, while Fulvia was exiled to Sicyon.
This new conflict proved untenable for both Octavian and Antony, however. Their centurions, who had become important figures politically, refused to fight due to their Caesarian cause, while the legions under their command followed suit. Fulvia's death and the mutiny of their centurions allowed the two remaining triumvirs to effect a reconciliation. The Italian Peninsula was left open to all for the recruitment of soldiers, but in reality, this provision was useless for Antony in the East.
Augustus - Wikipedia
War with Pompeius Further information: Sicilian revolt A denarius of Sextus Pompeiusminted for his victory over Octavian's fleet, on the obverse the Pharus of Messinawho defeated Octavian, on the reverse, the monster Scylla Sextus Pompeius threatened Octavian in Italy by denying shipments of grain through the Mediterranean Sea to the peninsula. Pompeius' own son was put in charge as naval commander in the effort to cause widespread famine in Italy.
The Government of the Roman Empire: A Sourcebook by Dr Barbara Levick This book reveals how an empire that stretched from Glasgow to Aswan in Egypt could be ruled from a single city and still survive more than a thousand years.
The Government of the Roman Empire is the only sourcebook to concentrate on the administration of the empire, using the evidence of contemporary writers and historians. Politics in the Roman Republic by Henrik Mouritsen This engaging book presents an original synthesis of Rome's political institutions and practices.
Caesar and Augustus
It begins by explaining the development of the Roman constitution over time before turning to the practical functioning of the Republic, focusing particularly on the role of the populus Romanus and the way its powers were expressed in the popular assemblies. Lendon Jon Lendon offers a bold new analysis of how Roman government worked in the first four centuries AD.
He contends that a despotism rooted in force and fear enjoyed widespread support among the ruling classes of the provinces on the basis of an aristocratic culture of honor shared by rulers and ruled. Roman Government's Response to Crisis, A. Foreign wars and internal disruptions evolved into the emperor Diocletian and later Constantine wresting order from chaos.Rome: Dinner With Octavian
These policies and institutions had a long history thereafter. This text is an early attempt at an inclusive study of the origins and evolutions of this transformation in the ancient world.