Karna - Wikipedia
The conversation between Karna and Krishna is quite fascinating. If Karna uses his Vasava Shakti, Arjuna is dead and if Arjuna is dead, the. Karna meets Duryodhana for the first time in materialists and dishonest in counseling Duryodhana with. Duryodhana asked Karna what the quarrelling was for. when Bhanumati asked Duryodhana why he didn't doubt her, he replied, "In a relation.
In contrast, Bhisma and Drona suggest a conciliation and dividing the kingdom into two, half for Kauravas and other for Pandavas. He calls for "together we should slay the Pandavas" as the final solution. Karna persistently recommends violence and an all-out war, to settle things once and for all, by good brave warriors. Karna also accuses Bhisma and Drona as covetous materialists and dishonest in counseling Duryodhana with non-violent strategies.
Arjuna and his brothers, however, are disguised as mendicant Brahmins. Karna's objection is that the competition is only meant for Kshatriyas, and Brahmins such as "the mendicant who just strung the bow" should not be competing for the hand of Draupadi, a Kshatriya bride. The gathered Kshatriyas too angrily support Karna, for they against the mixing of varna here, Brahmin-Kshatriya marriage.
Arjuna maintains his calm, continues to hide his true identity, insists that he is a "Brahmin who fight". Arjuna's accomplishments and calmness win Draupadi's heart.
Draupadi picks Arjuna and awards the garland to him, signify that she chooses to marry the disguised-Brahmin Arjuna. Draupadi too never likes Karna thereafter. Karna later regrets this anger and outburst.
There, Karna uses the choicest words to insult Draupadi, then recommends a form of sexual assault where she is dragged and publicly disrobed, an injury with insult that takes the bitterness of Pandavas for Karna to much more emotional level from what previously was a dispute about respective martial prowess. Later, in a quieter moment with Krishna such as in section 5. The first meeting is with Krishna, the second where his biological mother Kunti comes to meet him for the first time.
Krishna starts by complimenting Karna for knowing "the Vedas and the subtlety of the dharmasastras". He then requests his support to end the cascading cycle of violence and war.
Krishna tells Karna that Kunti is his biological mother and Pandavas are his half-brothers.
Friendship Stories From Mythology – Karna And Duryodhana
Through his relationship to his mother Kunti, all Vrishnis on Krishna's side will also recognize him and be his tributary, he can be the emperor with power over everyone. Yudhisthira will hold the fan for him as he sits in the throne, Bhima his umbrella, and the common wife of the Pandavas — Draupadi too — says Krishna, will sleep with him, [note 8] after some time, were Karna to press his status as the eldest biological Pandava brother, end the war and rule the world.
Karna replies that though he was born from Kunti, it was the wife of a charioteer "Radha who gave him love and sustenance", and that makes her his real mother. He is already married, says Karna, he has two sons and now grandsons, all because his father Adhiratha helped him settle into his married life. He shall betray no one, remain loyal to those who love him, including his friend Duryodhana, with whom he has been in allegiance for thirteen years.
It is not "blood ties" that matter, but how someone treats you over a period of time that does. He made a promise to Duryodhana and he will keep it. It is his duty to fight Arjuna. Krishna left it to her to choose between Karna and her five other sons. Kunti then went to meet Karna, finds him praying. After he finished his prayers to Surya, Karna meets Kunti for the first time in his adult life. He greets her he now already knows her to be his biological mother.
Kunti then confesses that he is her firstborn. Surya also appears and confirms Kunti's story, and suggests that he follow her. He reiterates that he loves the parents who raised him, they love him, and he will remain loyal to his lifelong relationships. No one should abandon those who give respect and affection, says Karna in these Mahabharata verses.
The war momentum shall continue and he aims to kill Arjuna. Karna promised to Kunti that he will not kill any of his other four half-brothers, but either "Arjuna or I" shall die and she can still say she has five sons just as she did all her life.
In parallel, Arjuna's brothers and Indra — the father of Arjuna and a major Vedic deity — plan ways to make Karna mortal. Karna disregards this warning and says that if the king of gods Indra comes to beg before him, and if he charitably gives to Indra, it will bring him "renown and fame", then argues that "fame is more important to him than anything else".
The leader of gods in return praises him and gives him a missile that can only be used once and will kill any mortal or immortal. By the thirteenth day of the Mahabharata war, numerous soldiers, kings, brothers and sons of Kauravas Karna's side and Pandavas Arjuna's side had been killed, many by foul means. On the fourteenth day, Arjuna took revenge of his own son's death, while Bhima and his son Ghatotkacha wreaked havoc on numerous Kaurava battalions.
The war that previously started after sunrise and stopped at sunset, did not stop on the fourteenth day's sunset as both armies continued a ferocious war to kill each other. Karna hurls the "Indra missile" to kill Ghatotkacha. Karna thus saves his reputation among his soldiers, launches the missile and kills Ghatotkacha. Duryodhana and Kaurava army rejoice with the death of Bhima's son Ghatotkacha, but now Karna had exhausted the weapon that gave him an advantage over Arjuna.
Above is the scene at the 12th-century Hoysaleswara TempleKarnataka. The South Indian king considers it below his dignity to be a mere charioteer and starts insulting Karna, who retaliates with words. Duryodhana intervenes, praises both, presses Shalya to guide the chariot for the critical battle. Since all previous commanders of Duryodhana had been killed, he anoints Karna as the senapati commander of all his forces for the first time.
Karna and Shalya head into the battlefield together, though they keep insulting each other's abilities and intent, lack mutual devotion and teamwork. They battle that day, each showing his martial skills of attack as well as his ability to neutralize all weapons that reach their chariot.
Karna steps out of his chariot and is distracted while trying to unstick it. Arjuna — whose own son was killed by the Kauravas a day ago while he was trying to unstick his chariot's wheel — takes this moment to launch the fatal attack. According to McGrath, the Vedic mythology is loaded with the legendary and symbolism-filled conflict between Surya sun and Indra clouds, thunder, rain. The attributed author of Mahabharata, the sage Vyasawas also born from an unwed union of Satyavati and sage Parashara.
Both Karna and Kumbhakarna did not take part in the great wars of their respective epics at the start. Karna's kawach breastplate armour has been compared with that of Achilles 's Styx -coated body and with Irish warrior Ferdiad 's skin that could not be pierced.
He has been compared to the Greek mythological part divine, part human character Achilles on various occasions as they both have divine powers but lack corresponding status. It is not an atomistic or compartmentalized concept, rather incorporates "ways of living, ways of seeing and ways of relating to life's ultimate issues", according to Matilal. Karna chooses loyalty to his lifelong friend and "good policy based on his heart" to be of higher value than accepting Krishna's recommendation that he switch sides and become the king as the eldest son of Kunti based on dharmasastras.
We want them to be treated with respect as equals. The Mahabharata is not content simply to point out the weaknesses of human beings. Karna has to be 'the wrong person in the wrong place' — this is what Karna symbolizes to many minds today. Life may have been unfair to Karna but he rises above pity. Despite his flaws we admire him. On the Subtle Art of Dharma  abridged Circumstances and subjective morality As the Karna story unfolds, similar to other stories in epic,  it raises moral dilemmas.
With each dilemma, the Mahabharata presents various sides and shades of answers through the characters. According to Bimal Matilal, the characters face a "choice between irreconcilable obligations", between two good or two poor choices, where complex circumstances must be considered.
Due to this action, Bhima swears, he would break Duryodhana's thigh. As an enraged Draupadi is about to curse the Kuru clanGandhari intervenes. Fearing retribution by the Pandavas, their allies, and history, Dhritarashtra and Gandhari reverse all of Yudhishthira's losses. But then either through Duryodhana forcing his father to command the Pandavas to play again, or through Shakuni's vicious tricks he might have made Dhritrashtra to order them to play the game is repeated.
For this game of dice Shakuni sets the condition that upon losing, Yudhishthira and his brothers must spend thirteen years in exile in the forest before they may reclaim their kingdom.
The thirteenth year must be passed incognito, or else the term of exile would be repeated. The Pandavas lose and begin their exile. The Emperor[ edit ] In the Chaturdhari compilation, it is interpolated that Karna took up the task of establishing Duryodhana as the Emperor of the world India.
Karna embarks upon a worldwide military campaign, otherwise called Digvijaya Yatra. No person in the entire universe, except Lord Vishnu, had performed this Vaishnava sacrifice. Duryodhana thus became the most powerful and the wealthiest man in the world.
With the help of Karna, Duryodhana even made plans and preparations to conquer Indrathe lord of the heavens and the father of Arjuna in order to become the sovereign ruler of both heaven and earth. Although Dhritarashtra openly criticizes his son, he tacitly desires that Duryodhana retain his throne. In a final attempt at securing peace, Krishna returns with the Pandavas' final proposal: Scoffing, Duryodhana says he will not even give even a needlepoint of land to the Pandavas.
Egged on by Krishna, Duryodhana attempts to arrest him. Krishna reveals his Vishvarupa form. The entire Kaurava court, save for Bhishma, Drona, Vidura, and Dhritarashtra who was granted divine vision in order to see that by supporting his son, he was going against Godis temporarily blinded by the form.
This confirms to those present that Krishna is indeed an avatar of Vishnu. Duryodhana, being vastly egoistic in some versions of the story an outright atheistbrushes off the incident, not convinced of Krishna's divinity, and believing that strength of arms, not philosophywould win him a war.
Gathering the army[ edit ] With war inevitable, Duryodhana gathers support from his powerful vassals. The most legendary warriors — BhishmaDronaKarnaKripaAshwatthamaShrutyudhaeven those who were critical of him are forced to fight for Duryodhana due to their previous commitments. He ends up amassing a larger army than his rivals. Shakuni also advises Duryodhana to seek Krishna's help. Duryodhana rushes to Dwarika only to find Krishna sleeping; he waits at the head of Krishna's bed when suddenly, Arjuna arrives with the same goal in mind.
Arjuna waits at the foot of Krishna's bed. When Krishna wakes up, both Duryodhana and Arjuna appeal for his alliance. Krishna offers a choice of himself, completely unarmed, or the entire Vrishini army.
Duryodhana proclaims that because he arrived first, he should get first-pick. However, Krishna says that because he saw Arjuna first and because Arjuna is younger, that Arjuna gets first choice.
Duryodhana becomes worried but is overjoyed when Arjuna elects to reject Krishna's army in favor of Krishna alone. Joyously, Duryodhana returns to Hastinapura with the Vrishini army in-hand, only to be rebuked by Shakuni, who comments that Krishna is worth many armies by himself. Duryodhana also manages to win the army of Shalyathe maternal uncle of the Pandavas. Duryodhana intercepts Shalya's army as it comes to Kurukshetra and offers hospitality; Shalya accepts thinking Yudhishthira had made the offer.
After Shalya has enjoyed Duryodhana's comforts, Duryodhana reveals the duplicity and indicates that Shalya is now indebted to him. He uses this indebtedness to extract Shalya's army and support. Duryodhana wanted Shalya mainly so that Karna would have an equivalent charioteer to Arjuna's Krishna. During the War[ edit ] In the war, Duryodhana repeatedly eggs on the invincible Bhishma and Drona to forward his cause, even though his main hope is Karna. He desires to appoint Karna as his commander-in-chief ; however, Karna and Shakuni point out that his already reluctant allies would much rather fight under Bhishma, an older, experienced, god-bornkshatriya than fight under a suta-putra.
Reluctantly, Duryodhana appoints Bhishma as the commander in chief. When Bhishma falls to Arjuna, Duryodhana appoints Drona as commander-in-chief and orders him to capture Yudhishthira to win the war. On the thirteenth day of battle, his heir Lakshmana is killed by Arjuna's son, Abhimanyuwho proceeds to try and arrest Duryodhana. Duryodhana orders his soldiers to brutally kill of Abhimanyu, even if thought it takes unethical means to finish him off.
Duryodhana is repeatedly frustrated, as the Pandavas succeed in downing Drona, and is emotionally distraught when, on the 14th dayArjunaenraged by Abhimanyu's death, tears through the Kaurava army and slays Duryodhana's brother-in-law Jayadratha. Throughout the war, Bhima is steadily slaying his brothers, increasing his misery and bringing him closer to a defeat. Duryodhana's hopes are finally shattered when Karna is felled by the strategy of Lord Krishna and Arjuna.
It is said that Duryodhana never shed a single tear for any of his real brothers except Dushasana who were killed in the battlefield, but when his beloved friend Karna was slain, he was inconsolable.
Duryodhana appoints Shalya as the next commander-in-chief. On the final day of war, Duryodhana takes out his anger by smashing open Chekitana's head. As Shalya is killed by Yudhishthira, Duryodhana's paltry army-once eleven akshauhinis strong-breaks, and the army is essentially routed. Having lost his horseDuryodhana leaves the battlefield. He cools his body by entering a lake, all hope of winning lost.
Yet, he prepares for his final battle; for a death befitting a warrior on the battlefield and hoping to reunite with his friends and relations in the afterlife. He re-emerges from the lake after Ashwatthama and Kripa counsel him to face his destiny with courage. In some versions of the story, after Karna's death, Duryodhana doesn't even join his army and instead heads immediately to the lake.
When the Pandavas and Krishna eventually find him, Duryodhana tells them that he wants to gift the kingdom to them, and retire to the forest. Yudhishthira balks at the offer, telling him that Hastinapur is not Duryodhana's to gift. Instead, he offers that Duryodhana may pick any of the Pandava brothers to fight against one-to-one with a weapon of his choice, with the winner of the conflict the victor of the war.
Despite his proposed advantage over Yudhishthira, ArjunaNakulaor Sahadeva with the gadaDuryodhana picks his nemesis Bhima. Despite Bhima's physical advantage, Duryodhana had the better technique due to his devotion to his craft.
After a long and brutal battle between the two disciples of Balarama, Duryodhana begins to exhaust Bhima, and nearly makes Bhima faint. At this point, Krishna, observing the fight, calls out to Bhima and signals him by repeatedly clapping his own thigh with his hand.
Duryodhana - Wikipedia
As intended, Bhima was reminded of an oath he had taken after the game of dice to crush Duryodhana's thighs. Bhima victoriously attacks Duryodhana with his mace and strikes his thigh, mortally wounding Duryodhana.
After having his face insultingly kicked by Bhima, Duryodhana bemoans that he was slain by unfair means, given that it was illegal to attack below the waist in a mace fight. Infuriated at the violation, Balaramathe brother of Lord Krishna, raises his weapon to attack. Lord Krishna consoles Balarama, by reminding him of Duryodhana's evil deeds, and reprimands him for trying to influence a war he refused to participate in. Relenting but fuming, Balarama curses Bhima to be known in the world as a crooked warrior and blesses Duryodhana with glory, naming Duryodhana his greatest pupil.
He again eviscerates the Pandavas for all their chicanery during the war and decries their legacy. Venerating his own character, Duryodhana proclaims he will die happily. Duryodhana then turns to Krishna and specifically accuses him of engineering his defeat.
Upon the conclusion of these words of Duryodhana, signs from the heavens flowers and music validate the merits of Duryodhana's words. Death[ edit ] When the coast is clear, AshwatthamaKripacharyaand Kritvarmahaving witnessed the fight and not wanting to interrupt so as to rob Duryodhana of his honorcome to Duryodhana's broken body.
Duryodhana commands them to take revenge on the Pandavas, and to specifically kill all the Pandava brothers and Panchalas. Using the blood from his body, Duryodhana appoints Ashwatthama as the army's supreme commander. Already angry at the deceitful killing of his father DronaAshwatthama ambushes the Pandava camp at night. The three warriors lay waste to the sleeping, drunkand unaware army.
Other than those who had been staying in the Kaurava campfew escape the slaughter. The trio rushes to tell Duryodhana of the news. After destroying the entire Pandava camp, Ashwatthama proceeds towards Duryodhana. At this point, there are many different versions of the interaction between Ashwatthama and Duryodhana. In some, Ashwatthama believes he has killed the Pandavas and tells this to Duryodhana, who is elated at the news.
In others, Ashwatthama knows he has only killed the Upapandavasbut lies to his friend to make him happy in his final moments. In yet others versions, Ashwatthama tells Duryodhana that he killed the Pandavas' children, and Duryodhana is either happy that the Pandava lineage would die out, or distraught that the entire Kuru clan's future has ended. There is also a version of the story where Ashwatthama arrives to find Duryodhana already dead. This symbolizes the conclusion to the war. According to the Mahabharata, after entering the svarga with a human body on Indra's invitation, Yudhishthira witnessed that Duryodhana "was seated on a beautiful throne and he shone with the splendour of the sun and around him stood in attendance the goddess of heroism and other entitys of righteousness".
Yudhishthira found this insufferable and reminded the dwellers of svarga about his sinful deeds. Following that, Narada smiled at Yudhishthira and explained that Duryodhana had suffered for his sins, and that ultimately, Duryodhana was a warrior who had defended his dharma and fought bravely and valiently.
He kept his three fingers in a raised position and is unable to speak. All the efforts made by his men to understand the meaning proved to be futile. Seeing his plight Krishna approached him and said "I know what issues occupied your mind. I will address them". Krishna identified the issues as: Not building a fort around HastinapuraNot persuading Vidura to fight the battle, and Not making Ashwatthama the commander-in-chief after the death of Drona.