Marco Polo - Wikipedia
Explore Donna Boyd's board "Kublai Khan" on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Kublai khan, Marco polo and Genghis khan. Jul 3, In the midsection of the second season of “Marco Polo,” during the 'Marco Polo' Fact Check: Did the Pope Really Send Crusaders Against Kublai Khan? met with Nayan, but did have diplomatic relations with Abaqa Khan, who ruled . phenomenon arising from its record-setting meme-spawning movie. Italo Calvino — 'Marco Polo describes a bridge, stone by stone.'But which is the Kublai Khan remains silent, reflecting. Read more quotes from Italo Calvino.
The year-old Song Dynasty was on the verge of collapse and Kublai was about to become the first non-Chinese emperor of China.
But even as the khan was trying to take China, his own people were turning on him in a civil war, upset over what they saw as his increasing softness and excessive Sinification. And that he was trained in the scholar-warrior tradition — in archery, Mongol warfare, Chinese martial arts, languages, letters.
He went through this incredible education that was really this cultural awakening. Silk Road Seattle washington. University of California Press, You can help this site a little by ordering your Amazon books through this link: John Murray, are part of the public domain and can be read online at Project Gutenberg. The original series was shown in s. He called the great Khan a "Lord of Lords" and "the most powerful man in people and in lands and in treasure that ever was in the world" — -and this was probably no exaggeration.
The Great Khan bade them rise and received them honorably and entertained them with good cheer. He asked many questions about their condition and how they fared after their departure. The brothers assured him that they had indeed fared well, since they found him well and flourishing. Silk Road Foundation silk-road.
MARCO POLO AND KUBLAI KHAN | Facts and Details
He reported that the Khan once received "a gift of more thanwhites horses very beautiful and fine" and employed 10, falconers, carrying gyrfalcons, peregrines, sake falcons and goshawks, and 20, dog handlers. These numbers are thought to be exaggerations. Marco Polo fell in love with the capital, which later became part of Beijing, then called Cambaluc or Khanbalig, meant 'city of the Khan.
He marveled the summer palace in particular. He described "the greatest palace that ever was".
‘Marco Polo’ Fact Check: Did the Pope Really Send Crusaders Against Kublai Khan?
The walls were covered with gold and silver and the Hall was so large that it could easily dine 6, people. The palace was made of cane supported by silk cords, which could be taken to pieces and transported easily when the Emperor moved. There too, the Khan kept a stud of 10, speckless white horses, whose milk was reserved for his family and for a tribe which had won a victory for Genghis Khan.
According to Marco Polo's account: He is of a good stature, neither tall nor short, but of a middle height. He has a becoming amount of flesh, and is very shapely in all his limbs. His complexion is white and red, the eyes black and fine, the nose well formed and well set on.
And this Temur is an able and brave man, as he hath already proven on many occasions. In that city stands his great Palace, andnow I will tell you what it is like. There are beasts also of sundry kinds, such as white stags and fallow deer, gazelles and roebucks, and fine squirrels of various sorts, with numbers also of the animal that gives the musk, and all manner of other beautiful creatures, insomuch that the whole place is full of them, and no spot remains void except where there is traffic of people going and coming.
Niccolo and Matteo could communicate with him since they had learn Turkic dialects. In this letter, the Khan asked the Pope to send him a hundred learned men to teach his people about Christianity and Western science, and he also wanted the Pope to procure oil for him from the lamp at the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. To safeguard the Polos during their journey back, Kulbai Khan gave them a foot long and three inches wide inscribed golden tablet that was essentially a very fancy diplomatic passport, giving the brothers wide ranging rights to recieve lodging, provisions, horses, and guides throughout the lands controlled by the Khan.
An English translation of the inscription would be roughly: Let him that pays him not reverence be killed. Marco Polo — the early years Marco Polo was born in His family were Ventians, but it is unclear if he was actually born in Venice or if the birth took place on the island of Curzola off the Dalmatian coast, where his father and uncle had established a trading post. We do know that Marco Polo spent at least part of his childhood in Venice, which was at the time a city state heavily engaged in international commerce.
He recieved a good education that included, among other things, classes in French and Italian. His native language is believed to have been Venetian.
- Marco Polo and his travels
- Kublai Khan
- MARCO POLO AND KUBLAI KHAN
Polo read many classical authors and was also schooled in the Christian teology of the Latin Church. Growing up in a merchantile family, he was taught subjects such as appraising, foreign currency trade, and the handling of cargo ships.
The Polo brothers returned to Venice in April and the now teenaged Marco could finally be reunited with his father. Presenting the pope with the letter from Kublai Khan proved impossible for the brothers, since Pope Clement IV had died in and no new pope had been elected yet.
Cultural influence Marco polo and his travels have had a very large cultural influende on the western world. In mor e modern days the story of Marco Polo have inspired several movies, a game, a computer game and even a slot machine. The slot can be played in a number of different online casinos. You can use casino bonuses to be able to try the slot machine for free.
They had finally been able to deliver the letter from Kublai Khan to the pope, since Teobaldo Visconti had been elected at the conclusion of the papal election that had been running from to — the longest papal election in the history of the Latin Church. With them on their new journey east, the Polo family brought letters and gifts from the pope that they were to give to Kublai Khan, and they were also accompanied by two friars. The friars left them fairly soon however, because they reached a war zone and the friars got too scared to continue.
The Polo family pushed on without them, travelling through Armenia, Persia and Afghanistan, and following a route that went over the Pamir Mountains of Central Asia to get to China. It is excellently situated so the goods brought to here come from many regions.
Latin merchants specially Genevis go there to buy the goods that come from foreign lands. From Tabriz to Badakhshan After Tabriz, the Polos travelled south to Hormuz, a port on the Persian Gulf from where they intended to travel by ship to the Chinese coast. In Hormuz, they had a change of heart, because the ships available were in very poor condition. So, instead of going by sea, the Polos continued to travel over land, from Homurz to Kerman, passing places such as Herat and Balk.
Marco Polo got ill, which meant staying in Badakhshan for a year to allow him to recover. Badakshan had emerged as an important trading center in antiquity, especially for lapis lazuli which was traded here as early as the 4th millennium BC. Located along the Silk Road, Badakshan eventually started playing an important role in the trading of silk and other commodities as well. Marco Polo himself describes it as a place where Balas rubies could be found under the mountain Syghinan Shighnan.
Balas ruby is a rose-tinted variety of spinel, and for centuries the mines of the Gorno Badakhshan region were the main source for these gems. The name Balas ruby is a reference to Balascia, which was the ancient name for Badakhshan. Inafter the Phags pa Lama created the 'Phags-pa scripthe was promoted to imperial preceptor.
During Phagspa's absence in Tibet, the Tibetan monk Sangha rose to high office and had the office renamed the Commission for Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs. Antong of the Jalairs and Bayan of the Baarin served as grand councillors fromand Oz-temur of the Arulad headed the censorate. Borokhula's descendant, Ochicher, headed a kheshig Mongolian imperial guard and the palace provision commission.
In the eighth year of ZhiyuanKublai officially created the Yuan dynasty and proclaimed the capital as Dadu Chinese: His summer capital was in Shangdu Chinese: To unify China,  Kublai began a massive offensive against the remnants of the Southern Song in and finally destroyed the Song inunifying the country at last.
Chinese opera flourished during Yuan China.The Life Story of Marco Polo in Under 3 Minutes
Most of the Yuan domains were administered as provinces, also translated as the "Branch Secretariat", each with a governor and vice-governor. It was considered the most important region of the dynasty and was directly governed by the Zhongshu Sheng at Dadu.
Tibet was governed by another top-level administrative department called the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs.
Kublai promoted economic growth by rebuilding the Grand Canalrepairing public buildings, and extending highways. However, his domestic policy included some aspects of the old Mongol living traditions, and as his reign continued, these traditions would clash increasingly frequently with traditional Chinese economic and social culture. Kublai decreed that partner merchants of the Mongols should be subject to taxes in and set up the Office of Market Taxes to supervise them in Inmaritime trade was put under the Office of Market Taxes.
The main source of revenue of the government was the monopoly of salt production. To guard against devaluation, the currency was convertible with silver and gold, and the government accepted tax payments in paper currency. InKublai issued a new series of state sponsored bills to finance his conquest of the Song, although eventually a lack of fiscal discipline and inflation turned this move into an economic disaster.
Kublai Khan | Marco Polo Netflix Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia
It was required to pay only in the form of paper money. To ensure its use, Kublai's government confiscated gold and silver from private citizens and foreign merchants, but traders received government-issued notes in exchange.
Kublai Khan is considered to be the first fiat money maker. The paper bills made collecting taxes and administering the empire much easier and reduced the cost of transporting coins. Later Gaykhatu of the Ilkhanate attempted to adopt the system in Iran and the Middle East, which was a complete failure, and shortly afterwards he was assassinated. Several Europeans visited the empire, notably Marco Polo in the s, who may have seen the summer capital Shangdu.
From that time up until the Yuan dynasty, there were two Duke Yanshengs, once in the north in Qufu and the other in the south at Quzhou. The title was taken away from the southern branch after Kong Zhu rejected the invitation, so the northern branch of the family kept the title of Duke Yansheng. Confucius's descendants in Quzhou alone number 30, Thirty Muslims served as high officials in the court of Kublai Khan. Eight of the dynasty's twelve administrative districts had Muslim governors appointed by Kublai Khan.
He was a well learned man in the Confucian and Daoist traditions and is believed to have propagated Islam in China. Kublai Khan patronized Muslim scholars and scientists, and Muslim astronomers contributed to the construction of the observatory in Shaanxi. Muslim cartographers made accurate maps of all the nations along the Silk Road and greatly influenced the knowledge of Yuan dynasty rulers and merchants.
Muslim physicians organized hospitals and had their own institutes of Medicine in Beijing and Shangdu.