James Watson Francis Crick Rosalind Franklin Maurice Wilkins James Maurice Wilkins was already using X-ray crystallography to try to solve the DNA problem at King's College. It was a bad start to a relationship that never got any better. Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin discovered the structure of DNA at King's. Newly found letters between Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins illuminate the exasperation and strained relationships at the heart of one of the greatest King's College London alongside X-ray crystallographer Rosalind Franklin. were back on the DNA problem and hoped to visit London for Franklin's.
The unimpressed Franklin became angry when Watson suggested she did not know how to interpret her own data.
Watson hastily retreated, backing into Wilkins who had been attracted by the commotion. Much of their data was derived directly from research done at King's by Wilkins and Franklin. Franklin's research was completed by Februaryahead of her move to Birkbeck, and her data was critical.
Rosalind Franklin :: DNA from the Beginning
She took the view that building a model was to be undertaken only after enough of the structure was known. Photographs of her Birkbeck work table show that she routinely used small molecular models, although certainly not ones on the grand scale successfully used at Cambridge for DNA. In the middle of FebruaryCrick's thesis advisor, Max Perutzgave Crick a copy of a report written for a Medical Research Council biophysics committee visit to King's in Decembercontaining many of Franklin's crystallographic calculations.
By 28 FebruaryWatson and Crick felt they had solved the problem enough for Crick to proclaim in the local pub that they had "found the secret of life". Wilkins came to see the model the following week, according to Franklin's biographer Brenda Maddox on 12 March, and allegedly informed Gosling on his return to King's. Franklin did modify this draft later before publishing it as the third in the trio of 25 April Nature articles.
On 18 March,  in response to receiving a copy of their preliminary manuscript, Wilkins penned the following: As a result of a deal struck by the two laboratory directors, articles by Wilkins and Franklin, which included their X-ray diffraction data, were modified and then published second and third in the same issue of Nature, seemingly only in support of the Crick and Watson theoretical paper which proposed a model for the B form of DNA.
She is reported to have commented, "It's very pretty, but how are they going to prove it? As such, her response to the Watson-Crick model was in keeping with her cautious approach to science. At first mainly geneticists embraced the model because of its obvious genetic implications. Her new laboratories were housed in 21 Torrington Square, one of a pair of dilapidated and cramped Georgian houses containing several different departments; Franklin frequently took Bernal to task over the careless attitudes of some of the other laboratory staff, notably after workers in the pharmacy department flooded her first-floor laboratory with water on one occasion.
Despite the ARC funding, Franklin wrote to Bernal that the existing facilities remained highly unsuited for conducting research " Her meeting with Aaron Klug in early led to a longstanding and successful collaboration. They soon discovered published in that the covering of TMV was protein molecules arranged in helices. In he and Franklin published individual but complementary papers in the 10 March issue of Nature, in which they showed that the RNA in TMV is wound along the inner surface of the hollow virus.
The previous year, Franklin had visited the University of California, Berkeleywhere colleagues had suggested her group research the polio virus. Eventually, Bernal arranged for the virus to be safely stored at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine during the group's research.
With her group, Franklin then commenced deciphering the structure of the polio virus while it was in a crystalline state. She attempted to mount the virus crystals in capillary tubes for X-ray studies, but was forced to end her work due to her rapidly failing health.
Her materials included table tennis balls and plastic bicycle handlebar grips. They eventually succeeded in obtaining extremely detailed X-ray images of the virus.
In JuneKlug and Finch published the group's findings, revealing the polio virus to have icosahedral symmetry, and in the same paper suggested the possibility for all spherical viruses to possess the same symmetry, as it permitted the greatest possible number 60 of identical structural units. She developed her scepticism as a young child. Her mother recalled that she refused to believe in the existence of godand remarked, "Well, anyhow, how do you know He isn't She?
Science, for me, gives a partial explanation of life I do not accept your definition of faith i.
Your faith rests on the future of yourself and others as individuals, mine in the future and fate of our successors. It seems to me that yours is the more selfish A creator of what? I see no reason to believe that a creator of protoplasm or primeval matter, if such there be, has any reason to be interested in our insignificant race in a tiny corner of the universe.
As the only Jewish student at Lindores School, she had Hebrew lessons on her own while her friends went to church. She first "qualified" at Christmas for a vacation at MentonFrance, where her grandfather went to escape English winter.
As soon as Franklin saw the model — a triple helix — she knew it was wrong. Watson had made a serious error. The Cambridge team's behaviour caused an immediate rift between the two groups.
What if Wilkins and Franklin had been able to work together? « Why Evolution Is True
The King's group wanted to share their work in a spirit of openness, but feared being beaten to the prize. Two of the new letters shed fresh light on the fallout. But the same day, he wrote a second, less formal letter, stating: We are really between forces which may grind all of us into little pieces. I had to restrain Randall from writing to Bragg complaining about your behaviour.
- Sexism in science: did Watson and Crick really steal Rosalind Franklin’s data?
He pointed out that Wilkins was close to solving one of the "key problems in biomolecular structure", and ended the letter: We hope our burglary will at least produce a united front in your group. In a confused and awkward letter, Wilkins wrote to Crick, suggesting they stay away.
Letters shed light on bitter rivalries behind discovery of DNA double helix
I hope the smell of witchcraft will soon be getting out of our eyes. A few months later, both teams published their landmark papers on the structure of DNA in Nature. Another letter to Crick, written soon after, reveals Wilkins's exasperation that Franklin had not discovered the double helix sooner.