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The major alliances of World War I resulted from six nations' hope for a Given the sour relations with France, Bismarck signed what he called. Learn about the social hierarchies in medieval societies under Muslim rule. Within each society, complex social relations governed the lives of residents. . were able to use their wealth to cement political alliances, hire their own administrative staff, pastoral lifestyles and filling any needs that were unmet by this system. Start studying Medieval Vocab for quiz. Medieval system of alliances and relationships; a political and economic system based on land ownership and.
Although typically associated with the Westphalian states system and the European balance of power, alliances have taken shape on other continents and in other eras. The legacy of colonialism in Africa retarded the development of collective-defense schemes there, but elsewhere in the developing world alliances played a critical role in the evolving regional balance. For example, in the —70 Paraguayan Warthe Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay devastated Paraguay, reducing its territorial possessions as well as its population by about 60 percent.
Until the Cold War in the last half of the 20th century, ideology was not usually a significant factor in the formation of such coalitions. A new level of alliance building in Europe was reached in the late 19th century, when enmity between Germany and France polarized Europe into two rival alliances.
By most of the major states of Europe belonged to one or the other of these great opposing alliances: This bipolar system had a destabilizing effect, since conflict between any two members of opposing blocs carried the threat of general war. Eventually, a dispute between Russia and Austria-Hungary in quickly drew their fellow bloc members into the general conflict that became known as World War I — The Allied victors sought to ensure the postwar peace by forming the League of Nationswhich operated as a collective security agreement calling for joint action by all its members to defend any individual member or members against an aggressor.
A collective security agreement differs from an alliance in several ways: The League of Nations became demonstrably ineffective by the mids, however, after its members declined to use force to stop aggressive acts by Japan, Italy, and Germany. These three countries soon formed the Axisan offensive alliance that contested for world dominion in World War II —45 with a defensive alliance led by Great Britain, France, China, and, beginning inthe Soviet Union and the United States.
With the defeat of the Axis Powers inthe victorious Allies formed the United Nations UNa worldwide organization devoted to the principles of collective security and international cooperation.
Wikimedia Commons In some ways, the defeat of the Byzantine Empire allowed Christianity to flourish in the Muslim world, though in different forms than under the Byzantine Empire. For this reason, while Greek Orthodox Christians resisted Muslim rule, other Christians like the Nestorians were ambivalent. Under Muslim rule, Christianity also grew in the Caspian region and central Asia.
Similarly, in the absence of Zoroastrian institutions supported by the Persian Empire, many new sects and cults appeared in the former territories of the Persian Empire. Many people eventually converted to Islam, for a multitude of reasons. Some converted out of sincere belief, and others converted in order to avoid higher taxes or discrimination.
Some converted to attain higher status in government. Populations converted slowly, and by the eleventh century, Muslims were likely a slight majority in the Levant, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. Within Islam, religious differences were important as well. As different schools of thought crystallized and clear religious identities formed, specific groups were favored in different contexts. For example, Shias were favored under the Shia Fatimid dynasty, while Shias suffered some persecution under the Sunni Abbasids.
Shifting power balances meant that persecution of certain groups shifted frequently as well. Even within Sunni groups, specific interpretations or approaches to religion were given precedence, often at the whims of the current ruler.
For instance, under the seventh Abbasid caliph, Al-Ma'mun, religious scholars were subjected to religious tests, which were focused on seemingly minor doctrinal differences. Upon failing these tests, scholars were subject to serious punishments. How were the lives of Muslims and non-Muslims different?History of England - Documentary
How did the defeat of the Byzantine Empire affect Christians? Ethnic differences Islam began in the Arabian peninsula, and the first Islamic empires and had a distinctly Arab character. The Umayyad Caliphate in particular gave preference to Arabs and used Arabic as its administrative language.
Non-Arab Muslims, called mawali, Arabic for clients, were accorded lower status and paid higher taxes, though they often played important clerical roles. Ultimately, non-Arab Muslims, namely Persians, were incorporated into the Abbasid state, where they exerted considerable cultural influence. The Arab dominance of the Rashidun and Umayyad courts waned in the Abbasid Caliphate, and as Abbasid power declined, Persian, Turkic, and Berber powers rose in its place.
A medieval illustration depicting a battle. During the late Abbasid and post-Abbasid period, there were ethnic divisions within the military. Enslaved Turkic soldiers, called ghilman or mamluks, comprised a professional military class that was separate from the civilian population.
This division of the military contributed to the rising power of the Turkic Mamluk dynasty. The most successful non-Arab regime was that of the Mamluks in Egypt, but many other Islamic states were governed by non-Arabs.
What role did Arab ethnicity play under the Umayyads? How did this change under the Abbasids?
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What was one role of enslaved Turkic people? Women, gender, and family We have little information about the lives of women in the early Islamic era. Before the eleventh century, most historical accounts are limited to elite women, and legal sources do not shed much light on the lived experiences of non-elite women. While still limited, there is more information about women living in medieval Islamic societies.
Many historical accounts were authored by elite male scholars and were moralistic in nature, which means they were designed to instruct and give moral prescriptions.
They can offer some indirect insights, however. Except for elite women, women frequented markets and mosques and acted in a number of spheres, including agriculture, craft-making, food preparation, medicine, and midwifery.
The ordinary behaviors of women hinged on much more than religion. Socioeconomic status arguably had a much more important role. The practices of veiling, seclusion, and polygyny—marrying more than one wife—were more common in the elite sphere. Jewish and Christian elite women were much more likely to wear a veil or remain secluded than Muslim women of the lower classes, suggesting that these practices had little to do with religion.
Medieval Muslim societies (article) | Khan Academy
In fact, the elite practice of having separate female spaces, sometimes called harems, might have been adapted from the Byzantine gynaikonitis, a zone of the home that was reserved for women only. By contrast, the elite women of later periods were more limited in the public sphere.
Medieval Islamic society was more patriarchal than early Islamic societies. Some of that influence came from Sasanian and Byzantine culture, through their ruling-class customs and other religious ideas.
As Muslim societies integrated ideas from conquered regions, the cultures of these regions affected the interpretation of Islamic scripture as it related to gender. It would be hasty to conclude that women constituted an oppressed class, however. While elite women did not visit public spaces, these spaces were not the center of society as they are in the modern world.
Also, elite women still enjoyed considerable power and were able to use their wealth to cement political alliances, hire their own administrative staff, and fund charitable trusts. They regularly financed mosques, schools, and other institutions, and they were often the effective heads of their families. Royal women exerted significant influence at court and were often influential regents.
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Elite women were also often educated. While they did not participate in official Islamic legal bodies, they had their own educational institutions where they studied and taught religion and other subjects to other women. There were also Sufi convents, where women were able to live and worship. One notable Sufi mystic was Rabia of Basra, who lived in the eighth century and was known for her extreme piety. An illustration depicting a veiled woman stirring things in a vessel.
She is sitting near a tree. Women of all socioeconomic classes enjoyed a degree of legal and financial independence which was uncommon in other cultures at the time.
Medieval Muslim societies
Women were able to manage independent wealth, make investments, engage in trade, initiate divorce, and inherit assets. However, women inherited less than their male counterparts and required male guardians to initiate marriage according to some schools of thought. In legal matters, women did not act as judges, and their testimonies were not as valuable as those of their male counterparts.
While Islamic scripture and tradition set up moral principles for women and families, the way these principles were applied fluctuated in different political contexts. In early Islamic societies, pre-Islamic Arab culture was still very influential; the family was organized around a patriarchal clan with a common male ancestor. Families were led by the eldest male family member. However, centuries later, during Mamluk rule, society was organized very differently, with individuals exerting more power.
Women in this context were able to move through society more independently.