THE OBSERVER-OBSERVED RELATIONSHIP AS INFORMATION ABOUT STRUCTURE IN SMALL-GROUP RESEARCH; A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF. You Are The Observer: Realize The Power You Have Within you see how powerful the observer vs. the observed relationship is in your daily. The Relationship Between the Observer and the Observed: Revisiting Reflexivity with Transference and Countertransference Deniz Tunçalp Istanbul Technical.
No matter how well the objectives of the research are explained to the organizational participant attending the research, s he may be concerned about alternative hidden agendas and conspiracies depending on the organizational situation. Therefore, positive or negative transference may be set from the beginning.
Projection of the negative transference of the observed via! This may lead to irritation that increases resistance and defensiveness in the interaction. The ease with which the research interaction proceeds may be an indicator of the extent to which the negative transference exists in the unconscious background.
Alternatively, the intensity and duration of the changes in the affect, or behavior may indicate the strength of the transference dynamics. Having awareness and analytic interest into transference and countertransference phenomena, may help an observer to diffuse the behavior of the participant and look for alternative explanations of regression for further analysis and organizational knowing. Within certain limits of intensity, negative transference may actually lead to a better exploration and understanding of the organizational situation, leading to a transference reaction by the observer and creating ongoing cycles of negative transference.
Similarly, positive transference is also very prevalent and helpful in establishing positive interactions in the research context.
However, the intensity of the positive transference is also critical for reasons of reflexivity. If the intensity of positive transference goes to an extreme, then it may create a privileged position of the observer against the participant and, in some cases, on the focal organization.
In his dissertation work, Barley detailed the efforts of two Massachusetts hospitals to implement computed tomography CAT scanning. He observed the research setting both before and nearly nine months after the introduction of the CAT scanning. Using the ethnographic data reported in his dissertation, I explored few of the transference and countertransference situations reported and exemplify some reflexive questions that may arise using this methodology. Individuals develop those psychological regressions to manage their anxieties.
Since interplay of transference and countertransference is usually accompanied by a regression, feeling cycles of transference and countertransference take place in the research setting usually may indicate an unresolved issue of the organization and its resulting anxieties on the organizational participants Diamond and Allcom On the other hand, this perspective, might give the observer unprecedented opportunities to question observations made during the ethnographic process and causal dynamics involved.
In the next section, I conclude the paper by considering transference and countertransference informed reflexivity as a core element of a psychoanalytically informed, critical and intersubjective organizational inquiry. Therefore, our suspicion in the research situation needs to be addressed with the ongoing unconscious relationships that establish, flourish and terminate during the research process with critical consideration of corresponding transference and countertransference processes.
Therefore, analyzing transference and countertransference dynamics bring insights into the! Psychoanalytically informed organizational inquiry presents a challenging research situation for organizational observers.
While conducting research, observers need not only to consider organizational artifacts, events and histories, but also to analyze the subjective experience of organizational participants and their collective participation in the research process.
This paper suggests that while considering research orientations about reflexivity, a comprehensive consideration of transference and countertransference as a means of localizing the unconscious side of the organization and the research process is needed.
Psychoanalytically informed organizational research may lead to gaining further insights dealing with conscious and unconscious dynamics in organizations, leading to a richer understanding of organizational situations.
Although I have referenced a variety of epistemological, ontological and social orientations while reviewing alternative approaches to reflexivity in Section 2, my orientation in this paper has been a critical intersubjective approach Fay I submit that I have my own theoretical commitments to epistemological subjectivism, ontological realism and an inherent consideration of conflict and change as the fundamental character of contemporary society.
Despite my critical intersubjective orientation, other research orientations may also learn from psychoanalytic theory. In the history of psychoanalysis literature, research orientations have shown a similar shift. How transference and countertransference have been defined and analyzed also have changed over time due to corresponding changes in the meta-theoretical orientations in psychoanalytic theory and practice.
Therefore, organizational researchers with different meta-theoretical aspirations may well be informed! In conclusion, this article has emphasized the value of an appreciation of intersubjective unconscious processes while considering reflexivity in ethnographic research. This appreciation leads to critical consideration of transference and countertransference concepts that account for a central position in psychoanalysis and thus necessitates a journey into the psychodynamics of behavior both in organizations and in the research situation.
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New York University Press. The personality of the organization. University Press of America. On the countertransference in psychoanalysis. Quantum physics puts it like this: In considering these new perspectives, we must keep in mind that they are diametrically opposed to the perspective of people, events and experiences within the belief in separation.
Our consciousness has been guided by the separation experience for thousands of years. We cannot help but to experience opposition, resistance and maybe outrage at any new perspective that encourages our consciousness to expand beyond the limits that the belief in separation has imposed upon it. These new beliefs for observation are emerging among us, and are becoming a part of an ongoing dialogue about the creation of a new earth experience. While they are not theoretical, as theories are the domain of the belief in separation, they are ideas that are being shared by an awakening and expanding community.
These are some ideas that are arising from within us. There is no proof offered for these new ideas about observation.
Proof is an aspect of the belief in separation; vibratory resonance replaces proof in unity consciousness. This means that we feel a strong attraction or affinity for these new ideas within our hearts; our heart and feelings are fast becoming our new eyes and ears.
This shift is a radical one whose effects can be experienced immediately.
New Ideas for Observation First. The belief in separation is a program of false beliefs. It requires constant effort to maintain, and the program is constantly changing. These changes require constant adaptation by those who are in a relationship with this belief system.
The rules are always changing under the guise of growth and evolution, when in fact the constant change is due to the growing awareness of the falsity of the beliefs on which the program is based, or the obsolescence of the program. Any belief system based on lack and limitation will destroy itself in its effort to imprison an unlimited, eternally expanding consciousness. And we are eternally expanding consciousness. We are creator beings.
Regardless of sex, politics, race, history, or religion or geographical location, each and every one of us creates reality according to the same laws of thought and emotion.
The energy of thought and emotion and the laws that govern it are of the same Source. There is no separation between the Source of this energy, the laws which govern it, and the creator beings who create physical reality with it.
Some creator beings know this and are deliberately creating their lives; most do not and are creating their life experience by default. There are only two experiences to have on this planet.
The first is a learning experience that takes place in the relationship with the belief in separation; this relationship demands a denial of our true identity: The separation experience places creator beings in a constant state of resistance that only intensifies over time.
It is an experience that is life degenerating. The belief in separation creates imbalance and conflict within the physical body and within the life experience. Creator beings in relationship with denial often see the world being composed of the powerful and powerless, the good and the bad, the rich and the poor.
This observation is a result of the duality inherent in the belief in separation. Creator beings will seek escape from the system by becoming aware that another experience is possible and by the observance of that other experience. The second experience is the awakening or a coming into awareness of our true identity.