Difference Between Line and Line & Staff Organization (with Comparison Chart) - Key Differences
For running organization properly both line and staff member's contribution is required and their relationship must be well defined in organizational structure. A line-staff organizational structure attempts to render a large and complex Relationships between individuals, groups, and divisions are based on lines of. While line authority relies on command, line and staff authority is based on Two such formal organizational relationships are line organization and line The organization structure, in which specialist are added to the line.
It exists in all organizations as an uninterrupted scale or series of steps. Hence, The scalar principle in the organization The clearer the line of authority from the ultimate management position in an enterprise to every subordinate position is, the clearer will be the responsibility for decision-making and the more effective will be organization communication.
line-staff organization | Definition, Characteristics, Advantages, & Disadvantages | zolyblog.info
In many large enterprises, the steps are long and complex; but even in the smallest; the very fact of organization introduces the scalar principle. It, therefore, becomes apparent from the scalar principle that line authority is that relationship in which a superior exercise direct supervision over a subordinate authority relationship being in direct line or steps.
The nature of the staff relationship is advisory.
The function of people in a pure staff capacity is to investigate, research, and give advice to line managers. Benefits of Staff There are many advantages and benefits out of the use of staff.
A few of them are: Handling complex managerial functions The necessity of having the advice of qualified staff specializes in various areas of an organization can scarcely be overemphasized, especially as operations become more and more complex. Assisting in decision-making Managers are now faced with the necessity of making decisions that require expert knowledge in matters like environmental issues, strengths, and weaknesses of the organization, so on and so forth.
Relieving an over-burdened top executive Staff specialists devote their time to think, to gather data, and to analyze them on behalf of their busy superiors. Although line and staff may operate at different levels of an organization, all positions are defined relative to their line or staff function. Differentiating line and staff functions is straightforward in that it involves identifying the beneficiaries of the activity, product, or service. If the beneficiaries are employees, then it is a staff function.
Otherwise, the activity is related to the line organization. By modifying organizational hierarchies to include staff functions, organizational capacity for processing information is increased without sacrificing lines of authority. However, studies indicate that although line-staff innovations may preserve the appearance of formal line authority, staff groups, particularly specialized staff, often in effect assume decision-making responsibilities because their lines of communication to upper management are shorter.
Staff and line - Wikipedia
This is the case for staff specialists who monitor and report on line performance. The authority of staff specialists may consist of pure advice-giving, or specialists may have the right to pass along directives from upper management to those they do not formally supervise.
This naturally leads to power struggles between line and staff. Communication failures, poorly defined responsibilities, and divergent interests create unclear lines of authority that lead to intra-organizational conflict and reduce organizational performance. Clarifying supervisory relationships reduces organizational dysfunction and increases effectiveness. An example of a staff manager is a legal adviser. He or she does not actively engage in profit-making activities, but does provide legal support to those who do.
Therefore, staff positions, whether personnel or managers, engage in activities that are supportive to line personnel.
Three types of authority are present: Line authority is the right to carry out assignments and exact performance from other individuals.
Line authority flows down the chain of command.
For example, line authority gives a production supervisor the right to direct an employee to operate a particular machine, and it gives the vice president of finance the right to request a certain report from a department head. Therefore, line authority gives an individual a certain degree of power relating to the performance of an organizational task. Two important clarifications should be considered, however, when discussing line authority: The head of a staff department has line authority over his or her employees by virtue of authority relationships between the department head and his or her directly-reporting employees.
Staff authority is the right to advise or counsel those with line authority. For example, human resource department employees help other departments by selecting and developing a qualified workforce. A quality control manager aids a production manager by determining the acceptable quality level of products or services at a manufacturing company, initiating quality programs, and carrying out statistical analysis to ensure compliance with quality standards.
Therefore, staff authority gives staff personnel the right to offer advice in an effort to improve line operations. Functional authority is referred to as limited line authority.
It gives a staff person power over a particular function, such as safety or accounting. Usually, functional authority is given to specific staff personnel with expertise in a certain area. For example, members of an accounting department might have authority to request documents they need to prepare financial reports, or a human resource manager might have authority to ensure that all departments are complying with equal employment opportunity laws.
Functional authority is a special type of authority for staff personnel, which must be designated by top management.