Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia
The Ottomans inflicted a series of defeats on the declining Christian . These communities were given their own parts of towns in which to live. Paradise, Neil, "In the Lion's Den: Orthodox Christians under Ottoman Rule, Orthodox/Ottoman relationship in vastly .. economic vitality of his cities and. Ottoman Empire, empire created by Turkish tribes in Anatolia (Asia Minor) that grew . however, and were unable to take the major cities of Bithynia. Orhan began the military policy, expanded by his successors, of employing Christian . which had maintained friendly relations with the sultans in order to.
The law served as legal cover for a comprehensive policy of removal. Although it did not limit Armenian removal to clearly defined zones and although the Entente publicly warned the Ottoman authorities of future punishment for crimes against humanity on 24 May, German officials still did not anticipate or counter the risk of an Empire-wide extermination of Armenians.
On the contrary, their approval was a decisive breakthrough for a regime which a few months previously had found itself strictly bound to implement, jointly backed by Germany, a monitored coexistence of Christians and Muslims, Armenians, Syriacs, Kurds and Turks in eastern Asia Minor. In eastern Anatolia, men and boys were mostly massacred on the spot; those in the army were separated into unarmed labour battalions and also killed.
At the Dardanelles and in Arabia, Armenian soldiers continued to fight in the Ottoman army. In the west, men were also forcibly removed and some of the deportees left by train. Women and children from central and eastern Asia Minor endured starvation, mass rape and enslavement on their marches. In certain places, in particular the province of Diyarbekir under Governor Dr. He considered this population unreliable and wanted to disperse it among a Muslim majority in the western provinces.
He could not, however, implement this early policy of removal and dispersal in autumn  and did not transform it into a general policy of removal cum extermination as in the case of the Armenians. Several hundred thousand destitute Armenian deportees arrived in Syria in the summer and fall of Most of them were not resettled, as had been promised, but isolated in camps and starved to death according to rules that their local or regional demographic proportion must not exceed a few percents.
Christian Allies of the Ottoman Empire
Only recently have scholars published witness accounts of the extreme horror of this second phase of the genocide and studies on limited efforts to help the victims. With the genocide and these changes, the Tanzimat reform principle of equality cum plurality, including a-territorial democratic millet autonomy, had died. Ottomanism was dead; it could no longer serve as a viable modern principle as it had vigorously done after the revolution of In contrast to the massacres in the s, conversion only warranted survival in if the Ministry of Interior permitted it as an exception.
Most important was the earlier escape to Erzincan and Erzerum, occupied by the Russian army in Thousands of Armenians had found refuge among the Alevis in mountainous Dersim in and were able to cross the Russian lines in Others had fled beyond the eastern front and returned with the advancing Russian army, which retreated after the October Revolution in November Unable to stop the return of Young Turkish rule, Armenian militias on the retreat committed massacres against Muslims, including the Alevi population, which did not support them in in that region.
Russia lost a huge part of her western empire to Germanybut also, as stipulated in Article 4, the north-eastern corner of Asia Minor that it had acquired in the Berlin Treaty in More than 1 million people were in danger according to Matthias Erzbergera leader of the democratic opposition in the Reichstag.
The most reliable of the widely varying figures for the death toll is that a half or more of the nearly 2 million Ottoman Armenians alive in the figure of 2 million comes from the statistics of the Armenian Patriarchate  were killed in Talat considered the Ottoman Armenian population in pre Asia Minor to be 1.
A small remnant endured, often Islamised. Others fled before being removed, most of them to the Caucasus. The deportations were conducted by the same Interior Ministry that had orchestrated the Armenian removal through the Office of Tribal and Immigrant Settlement. The specific goals of the policies were different from those implemented against Armenians: While the death toll was nevertheless high due to logistical issues, the Kurds were neither deported to areas where life was impossible nor attacked en route.
The removal of Arabs targeted a major group of families considered to be separatists. Side by side with others, including refugees from Libya, they were dispersed and resettled in parts of Anatolia from which Christians had been removed. In contrast to all these Muslim groups, the CUP judged Jews in Palestine as a whole to be unreliable, non-assimilable to Turkishness and possibly separatist and thus to be removed to other places within the Empire or to be expelled, although more than 20, Jews had successfully applied for Ottoman citizenship since the eve of the war.
In the same vein, the Christians of Greater Syria were never targeted in a way that could be compared to the treatment of Christians of Asia Minor, in particular the Armenians. The Armenians saw their future in Asia Minor — a place that the Turkist movement claimed as Turk Yurdu the Turkish national home and was not ready to share. The situation of total war contributed to radical demographic engineering and an unprecedented destruction of Ottoman Christians.
The CUP regime fought a war in both externally and, even more than any other country in Europe, also internally, because its prioritarian goal was to restore the state's sovereignty. Sovereignty was restricted in particular by the Capitulations as well as the Reform Agreement of Februaryboth in favour of Ottoman non-Muslims. Christians who had been strongly involved in Ottoman politics but did not share the CUP's war aims and could not easily be expelled to an another state.
The large majority, nearly 1. A population exchange agreed upon in the Lausanne Treaty finally accomplished Asia Minor's demographic de-Christianisation. Etudes ruralespp. The Young Turks' Crime against humanity. The Armenian genocide and ethnic cleansing in the Ottoman Empire, Princetonpp. Germany and the Ottoman Empire Ottoman propaganda and Turkish identity: The Ottoman treatment of the Assyrians, in: A Question of Genocide: In the land of blood and tears.
Experiences in Mesopotamia during the World WarArlingtonpp. The Ottoman mobilization of manpower in the First World War.
Between voluntarism and resistance, Leiden Armenians in Ottoman documents —Ankarap. Der Todesgang des armenischen Volkes: En ces sombres jours, trans. At the crossroads of Der Zor: The Ottomans, left as the major Muslim rivals of Byzantium, attracted masses of nomads and urban unemployed who were roaming through the Middle East searching for means to gain their livelihoods and seeking to fulfill their religious desire to expand the territory of Islam.
The Ottomans were able to take advantage of the decay of the Byzantine frontier defense system and the rise of economic, religious, and social discontent in the Byzantine Empire and, beginning under Osman and continuing under his successors Orhan Orkhan, ruled —60 and Murad I —89took over Byzantine territories, first in western Anatolia and then in southeastern Europe. It was only under Bayezid I — that the wealth and power gained by that initial expansion were used to assimilate the Anatolian Turkish principalities to the east.
The Ottomans lacked effective siege equipment, however, and were unable to take the major cities of Bithynia. Orhan began the military policy, expanded by his successors, of employing Christian mercenary troops, thus lessening his dependence on the nomads.
Orhan soon was able to capture the remaining Byzantine towns in northwestern Anatolia: He then moved against his major Turkmen neighbours to the south. The consequent entry of Ottoman troops into Europe gave them a direct opportunity to see the possibilities for conquest offered by Byzantine decadence.
Ottoman raiding parties began to move regularly through Gallipoli into Thrace. Huge quantities of captured booty strengthened Ottoman power and attracted thousands from the uprooted Turkmen masses of Anatolia into Ottoman service. Cantacuzenus soon fell from power, at least partially because of his cooperation with the Turks, and Europe began to be aware of the extent of the Turkish danger.
Constantinople itself was bypassed, despite the weakness and disorganization of its defenders, because its thick walls and well-placed defenses remained too strong for the nomadic Ottoman army, which continued to lack siege equipment. Renamed Edirnethe city became the new Ottoman capital, providing the Ottomans with a centre for the administrative and military control of Thrace.
As the main fortress between Constantinople and the Danube Riverit controlled the principal invasion road through the Balkan Mountainsassured Ottoman retention of their European conquests, and facilitated further expansion to the north.
The Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus tried to mobilize European assistance by uniting the churches of Constantinople and Romebut that effort only further divided Byzantium without assuring any concrete help from the West. Murad next incorporated into the rapidly expanding empire many European vassal s. He retained local native rulers, who in return accepted his suzerainty, paid annual tributes, and provided contingents for his army when required.
That policy enabled the Ottomans generally to avoid local resistance by assuring rulers and subjects that their lives, properties, traditions, and positions would be preserved if they peacefully accepted Ottoman rule. It also enabled the Ottomans to govern the newly conquered areas without building up a vast administrative system of their own or maintaining substantial occupation garrisons.
South of the Danube only WalachiaBosnia, AlbaniaGreeceand the Serbian fort of Belgrade remained outside Ottoman rule, and to the north Hungary alone was in a position to resist further Muslim advances. Bayezid I Murad was killed during the Battle of Kosovo. In fact, he was compelled to restore the defeated vassals and return to Anatolia. That return was precipitated by the rising threat of the Turkmen principality of Karamancreated on the ruins of the Seljuq empire of Anatolia with its capital at Konya.
They had, however, expanded peacefully through marriage alliances and the purchase of territories. The acquisition of territory in central Anatolia from the emirates of Hamid and Germiyan had brought the Ottomans into direct contact with Karaman for the first time. Murad had been compelled to take some military action to prevent it from occupying his newly acquired Anatolian territories but then had turned back to Europe, leaving the unsolved problem to his successor son.
Bayezid IBayezid I, undated engraving. That opposition strengthened the Balkan Union that was routed by the Ottomans at Kosovo and stimulated a general revolt in Anatolia that Bayezid was forced to meet by an open attack as soon as he was able. By Bayezid had overwhelmed and annexed all the remaining Turkmen principalities in western Anatolia. He attacked and defeated Karaman inannexed several Turkmen states in eastern Anatolia, and was preparing to complete his conquest in the area when he was forced to turn back to Europe to deal with a revolt of some of his Balkan vassals, encouraged and assisted by Hungary and Byzantium.
Bayezid quickly smashed the rebels —93occupied Bulgaria and installed direct Ottoman administration for the first time, and besieged Constantinople. In response, Hungary organized a major European Crusade against the Ottomans.
Turning back to Anatolia to complete the conquests aborted by his move against the Crusaders, Bayezid overran Karaman, the last Turkmen principality, in His advances, however, attracted the attention of Timur Tamerlanewho had been building a powerful Tatar empire in Central Asia, Iran, Afghanistanand Mesopotamia and whose invasion of India in had been halted by his fear of the rising Ottoman power on his western flank.
Left only with forces provided by his Christian vassals, Bayezid was decisively overwhelmed by Timur at the Battle of Ankara in Taken captive, Bayezid died within a year. He thus followed his victory by retiring from Anatolia after restoring to power the Turkmen princes who had joined him; evidently Timur assumed that a divided Anatolia would constitute no threat to his ambitions.
Christian Allies of the Ottoman Empire — EGO
At that time a strong European Crusade might have pushed the Ottomans out of Europe altogether, but weakness and division south of the Danube and diversion to other matters to the north left an opportunity for the Ottomans to restore what had been torn asunder without significant loss.
The descendants of the Turkmen notables who had assisted the early Ottoman conquests in Europe supported the claims of Mehmed. Mehmed restored the vassal system in Bulgaria and Serbiapromising that he would not undertake new European adventures. Murad II was also compelled to devote most of the early years of his reign to internal problems, particularly to the efforts of the ghazi commanders and Balkan vassal princes in Europeas well as the Turkmen vassals and princes in Anatolia, to retain the autonomy and—in some areas—independence that had been gained during the Interregnum.
In —23 Murad suppressed the Balkan resistance and put Constantinople under a new siege that ended only after the Byzantines provided him with huge amounts of tribute. The war was indecisive for some time. Venice was diverted by conflicts in Italy and in any case lacked the force to meet the Ottomans on land, while the Ottomans needed time to build a naval force sufficient to compete with that of the Venetians.
In addition, Murad was diverted by an effort of Hungary to establish its rule in Walachia, between the Danube and the Transylvanian Alpsa move that inaugurated a series of Ottoman-Hungarian conflicts which were to occupy much of the remainder of his reign. Murad finally built a fleet strong enough to blockade Salonika and enable his army to conquer it in Murad, who had been put on the throne by Turkish notables who had joined the Ottoman state during the first century of its existence, soon began to resent the power they had gained in return; the power of those notables was also enhanced by the great new estates they had built up in the conquered areas of Europe and Anatolia.
He took advantage of the death in of the Hungarian king Sigismund to reoccupy Serbia except Belgrade and to ravage much of Hungary. He then annexed Serbia inbeginning a policy of replacing the vassals with direct Ottoman rule throughout the empire. Hungarian control of Belgrade became the primary obstacle to large-scale advances north of the Danube. By its terms Serbia regained its autonomyHungary kept Walachia and Belgrade, and the Ottomans promised to end their raids north of the Danube.
In Murad also made peace with his main Anatolian enemy, Karaman, and retired to a life of religious contemplation, voluntarily passing the throne to his young son Mehmed II.
The Byzantines and Pope Eugenius IV sought to use the opportunity created by the rule of a youthful and inexperienced sultan to expel the Ottomans from Europe, organizing a new Crusade—joined by Hungary and Venice—after the pope assured them that they were not bound to honour the peace treaty they had signed with Muslim infidels.
A Crusader army moved through Serbia across the Balkan Mountains to the Black Sea at VarnaBulgaria, where it was to be supplied and transported to Constantinople by a Venetian fleet that would sail through the straits, while using its power to prevent Murad from returning from Anatolia with the bulk of the Ottoman army.
Though the Crusaders reached Varna, they were left stranded by a Serbian decision to remain loyal to the sultan and by Venetian reluctance to fulfill its part of the agreement for fear of losing its trade position in the event of an Ottoman victory. Further quarrels among the Crusade leaders gave Murad time to return from Anatolia and organize a new army.
Demographics of the Ottoman Empire
The Turkish victory at the Battle of Varna on November 10,ended the last important European Crusading effort against the Ottomans. Only Albania was able to resist, because of the leadership of its national hero, Skanderbeg George Kastriotiwho finally was routed by the sultan at the second Battle of Kosovo Constantinople became their first objective.
To Mehmed and his supporters, the Ottoman dominions in Europe could never reach their full extent or be molded into a real empire as long as their natural administrative and cultural centre remained outside their hands. Mehmed built Rumeli Fortress on the European side of the Bosporus, from which he conducted the siege April 6—May 29, and conquest of Constantinople. The transformation of that city into the Ottoman capital of Istanbul marked an important new stage in Ottoman history.
Moreover, the possession of Constantinople stimulated in Mehmed a desire to place under his dominion not merely the Islamic and Turkic worlds but also a re-created Byzantine Empire and, perhaps, the entire world of Christendom.
Bowe To pursue those objectives, Mehmed II developed various bases of power. Domestically, his primary objective was to restore Istanbul, which he had spared from devastation during the conquest, as the political, economic, and social centre of the area that it formerly had dominated. He worked to repopulate the city not only with its former inhabitants but also with elements of all the conquered peoples of the empire, whose residence and intermingling there would provide a model for a powerful and integrated empire.
While thousands of Christians and Muslims were brought to the city, Greeks and Armenians were disinclined to accept Muslim Ottoman rule and sought to secure new European Crusades. Mehmed thus gave special attention to attracting Jews from central and western Europe, where they were being subjected to increasing persecution.
The loyalty of those Jews to the Ottomans was induced by that of their coreligionists in Byzantium, who had supported and assisted the Ottoman conquests after the long-standing persecution to which they had been subjected by the Greek Orthodox Church and its followers. Under Ottoman rule the major religious groups were allowed to establish their own self-governing communitiescalled milletseach retaining its own religious laws, traditions, and language under the general protection of the sultan.
Millets were led by religious chiefs, who served as secular as well as religious leaders and thus had a substantial interest in the continuation of Ottoman rule. Mehmed used the conquering army to restore the physical structure of the city. Mehmed also devoted much time to expanding his dominions in Europe and Asia in order to establish his claim to world leadership. To that end he eliminated the last vassal princes who might have disputed his claims to be legitimate successor to the Byzantine and Seljuq dynasties, establishing direct Ottoman administration in most of the provinces throughout the empire.
In addition, he extended Ottoman rule far beyond the territories inherited from Murad II. From to he concentrated mainly on southeastern Europe, annexing Serbia —55 and conquering the Morea —60in the process eliminating the last major claimants to the Byzantine throne.