# Projection and coordinate systems relationship

### Projections and Coordinate Systems

Projections and coordinate systems are a complicated topic in GIS, but they As soon as a projection is applied, a Cartesian coordinate system (regular . because this projection maintains the local angular relationships. A projected coordinate system based on a map projection such as transverse enables them to be located in relation to the earth's surface. Projected Coordinate Systems. ▫ A map projection is the systematic transformation of locations on the earth . geometric relationships are known, either through.

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Finally, some data may be expressed in a local coordinate system with a false origin 0, 0 or other values in an arbitrary location that can be anywhere on earth. Local coordinate systems are often used for large-scale small area mapping. The false origin may be aligned to a known real-world coordinate or not, but for the purposes of data capture, bearings and distances may be measured using the local coordinate system rather than global coordinates.

Local coordinate systems are usually expressed in feet or meters. Vertical coordinate systems are either gravity-based or ellipsoidal.

## Geographic coordinate system

Gravity-based vertical coordinate systems reference a mean sea level calculation. Ellipsoidal coordinate systems reference a mathematically derived spheroidal or ellipsoidal volumetric surface. Download the list of supported geographic and vertical coordinate systems. Projections A projection is the means by which you display the coordinate system and your data on a flat surface, such as a piece of paper or a digital screen.

Mathematical calculations are used to convert the coordinate system used on the curved surface of earth to one for a flat surface. Since there is no perfect way to transpose a curved surface to a flat surface without some distortion, many different map projections exist that provide different properties.

Some preserve shape, while some preserve distance.

### Map Projections and Coordinate Systems

Others preserve area or direction. The extent, location, and property you want to preserve must inform your choice of map projection. There are over coordinate systems in the ArcGIS platform, so it is likely that you can find one to match your data.

In the event that you cannot, you can create a custom coordinate system to display the data.

ArcGIS Pro reprojects data on the fly so any data you add to a map adopts the coordinate system definition of the first layer added. As long as the first layer added has its coordinate system correctly defined, all other data that has correct coordinate system information reprojects on the fly to the coordinate system of the map. This approach facilitates exploring and mapping data, but it should not be used for analysis or editing, because it can lead to inaccuracies from misaligned data between different layers.

Data is also slower to draw when it is projected on the fly.

With more accurate means of measurement today i. Military inare internationally accepted as the geodetic reference system GRS Geographic Coordinates simply refers to the system of latitude and longitude. This coordinate system is formed by creating a grid using the equator as 0 degrees and forming parallels of latitude to the north and south 90 degrees N is the North Pole, 90 degrees S is the South Poleand meridians of longitude east and west which meet at degrees, commonly called the International Date Line of the "Prime Meridian" which passes through Greenwich, England.

The easiest way to try to transfer the information onto a flat surface is to convert the geographic coordinates into an X and Y coordinate system, where x is longitude and y is latitude.

## Map Projections and Coordinate Systems

Coordinates can also be "projected" onto two other flat surfaces, a cylinder or cone, and then unfolded into a map.

The grid formed by the latitude and longitude on a map is called the graticule. Orientations of the three shapes can also vary between equatorial standard lines of latitudetransverse standard lines of longitudeand oblique standard line other than latitude or longitude. In addition, each projection effects the distance, area, and angle relationships of the earth surface as portrayed on the map. Ideally, these factors would be consistent to the relationships on the real earth.

Unfortunately, some relationships are always distorted. This point, or focus, may be a pole, the equator, or other oblique point.

Normally though, the azimuthal projection is used for polar charts due to distortion at other latitudes.

A cylindrical projection usually places the earth inside a cylinder with the equator tangent or secant to the inside of the cylinder.

If the cylinder is placed perpendicular to the axis of the earth, the resulting projection is called a transverse projection. A conic projection works best over mid latitudes for this reason.

### Coordinate systems, projections, and transformations—Properties of maps | ArcGIS Desktop

These types of map projections can change for different parts or regions of the world in order to reduce certain distortions. Projection Distance, Area, and Shape Equidistant azimuthal projection has the distance to the outside of the map portrayed correctly.

These are seldom used in GIS.

Originally created to display accurate compass bearings for sea travel. An additional feature of this projection is that all local shapes are accurate and clearly defined.