egyptian - What is the difference between Ra and Horus? - Mythology & Folklore Stack Exchange
Where Ra is also a god of the underworld, Osiris takes on this function The possible relation between Ra and Horus is represented here, not. The Osiris myth is the most elaborate and influential story in ancient Egyptian mythology. In particular, the myth conveys a "strong sense of family loyalty and devotion", as the Egyptologist J. Gwyn Griffiths put it, in the relationships between Osiris, Re-Horakhty [Ra] as a prejudiced, sulky judge, and Osiris as an articulate. Ra or Re is the ancient Egyptian deity of the sun. By the Fifth Dynasty in the 25th and 24th 2 Iconography; 3 Worship; 4 Relationship to other gods When Ra was in the underworld, he merged with Osiris, the god of the dead, and through it .
Sekhmet was the Eye of Ra and was created by the fire in Ra's eye. She was a violent lioness sent to slaughter the people who betrayed Ra, but she was later turned into the more peaceful goddess Hathor.
In the underworld[ edit ] Ra was thought to travel on the Atettwo solar barques called the Mandjet the Boat of Millions of Years or morning boat and the Mesektet or evening boat. While Ra was on the Mesektet, he was in his ram-headed form. Sometimes, members of the Ennead helped him on his journey, including Setwho overcame the serpent Apophisand Mehenwho defended against the monsters of the underworld.
When Ra was in the underworld, he would visit all of his various forms. During the evening, the Egyptians believed that Ra set as Atum or in the form of a ram.
The night boat would carry him through the underworld and back towards the east in preparation for his rebirth. These myths of Ra represented the sun rising as the rebirth of the sun by the sky goddess Nut; thus attributing the concept of rebirth and renewal to Ra and strengthening his role as a creator god as well.
The Egyptian Gods
Apophis was born from Ra's umbilical cordindicative of how evil in Egyptian religion is the result of free will rather than a primordial force. Hu, or authority, and Sia, or mind. Ra was represented in a variety of forms. The most usual form was a man with the head of a falcon and a solar disk on top and a coiled serpent around the disk.
Ra was also pictured as a full-bodied ram, beetle, phoenix, heron, serpent, bull, cat, or lion, among others.
He was identified with the local sun god Atum. By the Fourth Dynastypharaohs were seen as Ra's manifestations on earth, referred to as "Sons of Ra". His worship increased massively in the Fifth Dynastywhen Ra became a state deity and pharaohs had specially aligned pyramidsobelisksand sun temples built in his honor.
The rulers of the Fifth Dynasty told their followers that they were sons of Ra himself and the wife of the high priest of Heliopolis. Ra on the solar barque. At the time of the New Kingdom of Egyptthe worship of Ra had become more complicated and grander.
The walls of tombs were dedicated to extremely detailed texts that depicted Ra's journey through the underworld. Ra was said to carry the prayers and blessings of the living with the souls of the dead on the sun boat.
The idea that Ra aged with the sun became more popular during the rise of the New Kingdom. Many acts of worship included hymnsprayers, and spells to help Ra and the sun boat overcome Apep.
The rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire put an end to the worship of Ra by the citizens of Egypt and as Ra's popularity suddenly died out, the study of Ra became of purely academic interest even among the Egyptian priests. For the Egyptian month named in his honor, see Mesori. As with most widely worshiped Egyptian deities, Ra's identity was often combined with other gods, forming an interconnection between deities. Of the entire Egyptian pantheon she is the goddess who still is most active today, taking an interest in the events of the world and trying to further her own aims.
Isis was well known as the most skilled magician of the gods, having tricked even Ra into revealing his true name to her. There was nothing she couldn't do, and she is depicted on the tarot as the high priestess carrying the scroll of secrets.
He is the brother of Isis, Osiris and his wife Nepthys. He is usually depicted as having a head of a strange animal, somewhere between a donkey, a tapir and a giraffe. This animal, known as the Set beast, has never been identified but ancient texts refers to it as "rude" and violent; it may have gone extinct or now exist as bygones in the Umbra.
Set is not just the cartoon evil god some make him out to be; Set has his own reasons to be what he is. Once Set was the god of the Seti people in Lower Egypt, a red-haired people whose standard was the Set beast. The Seti were defeated by the Horu people, worshipers of Horus and the eventual creators of the first dynasty.
Ever since, Set has been in opposition to Horus and the rulership he represents, sometimes overpowering his rival, sometimes defeated. His goal is to destroy all authority and spread the deserts and wastelands over the world, a revenge for all his defeats and humiliations.
However, these motivations are not widely known, and most mages simply regard Set as the pure antithesis of the ordered divine warrior-king Horus: Seth-animal, pigs, donkeys, fishes Offerings: The ancient Egyptians had It was said that he had inscribed his knowledge in secret books and hidden these around the earth, intending that they should be sought by future generations but found 'only by the worthy' - who were to use their discoveries for the benefit of mankind.
Graham Hancock, Fingerprints of the Gods Thoth is the god of wisdom, letters, the recording of time, science, magick, the scribe at the divine court.
He is depicted as ibis-headed, often carrying a scribes pallet or a papyrus. He is said to be self- created before creation, the one who gave Ptah the Word that caused everything to come into being.
He is also seen as a moon- god, possibly because he won the five sacred days of the year from the moon-god Khonshu in a game of draughts. Thoth is the most important deity to the Order of Hermes. Although the hermetic mages do not worship it as some choristers have claimedThoth is the original god of wisdom and knowledge, identified with Hermes and often regarded as the originator of the core of the tradition.
While the hermetic mages do not worship him, most revere his principle and sometimes regard Thoth as the symbol or personification of the Order. His main centre of worship was Hermopolis, today called El- Ashmunein. The temple complex was an immense labyrinth where great treasures of knowledge, magick and art were hidden in secret rooms and compartments. According to the myth each night the sun-boat has to battle the great snake and its minions to reach the eastern horizon and rise again.
Depiction's of this battle show how every god participates, from Thoth and Maat keeping the course straight to Set fighting the snake directly from the prow. Ptah From this myth Ptah is seen to be an intellectual principle of creation amalgamated with the physical image of Ta-tenen as the primeval mound. It is a complete synthesis of mind and the material world. Known as the 'logos doctrine', there is resounding echo of this impressive philosophical approach to the cosmos formulated by the priests of Memphis in the He is the god of creation, masonry and crafts.
He is depicted as a bearded man wearing a skullcap, often seated bandaged as a mummy holding the Uas phoenix- headed sceptre, an ankh, and a Djed sign of stability.
In the Memphite cosmology, Ptah was seen as the creator of the universe. According to some myths, Thoth created the specifications and secret words of the universe, which Ptah then fashioned. Architect's transit, level, plumb-line, bricks Offerings: Items created by hand for artistic or practical purposes Re Ra Homage to thee, O thou who hast come as Khepera, Khepera the creator of the gods, Thou art seated on thy throne, thou risest up in the sky, illumining thy mother [Nut], thou art seated on thy throne as the king of the gods.
Book of the Dead Re is the sun god, and his name is thought to mean "creative power" or "creator". He was seen as the father of the other gods, and once held rulership over all of them. In time he retired, but Isis had managed to trick him into revealing his true name to her so the rulership continued in her family.
Ra is commonly depicted as a falcon headed man with a solar disc above his head. He was originally identified with Horus, but in time became an independent deity who overshadowed him. During the new kingdom he was in turn overshadowed by Amun. He is also sometimes called Khephra, the scarab holding the sun.
Bennu phoenixobelisk, pyramid, Udjat Eye of Horussun, falcon, bull Offerings: Wallis Budge, Gods of the Egyptians The name means the Hidden One, and he was believed to be the original transcendent creative principle, hidden and eternal. During the New Kingdom he became the new king of the gods, the patron deity of Thebes.
He was seen as the creator of all things, of whom the other gods were just manifestations; he assimilated the other solar deities. His consort was Mut "Mother", the egyptian version of the "Great Mother" archetype, mother of the moon-god Khonshu.
The triad were worshipped in the great temples of Luxor and Karnak. Some choristers claim Amun was the first clear vision of the One. He was depicted in many ways, as a bearded man wearing a cap surmounted by two tall plumes, a frog headed-man when seen as a primordial deitya cobra-headed man, an ape, a lion or an enthroned man, but the human forms were most common.
Knight and Lomas have chosen "Freemasonry" as the closest equivalent meaning. Richard Shand, Masonic Belifs and Rituals Maat is the wife of Thoth, the goddess of physical and moral law, truth, justice, order and balance, depicted as a woman with a ostrich feather in her hair the feather of truth.
She represents the divine order of the universe, the order which can not and should not be broken.
Gods of Ancient Egypt: Osiris
The Law of Maat is in some sense the paradigm, and mages or sleepers breaking it must face the consequences. In the past, the laws of the land had to conform to the Law of Maat, or disorder and chaos would result as in the case of Akhenaten's heresy.
It is interesting to compare this to the concept of sharia in Islam, where the laws must conform to the spirit of the acts of Mohammed.
Some hermetics identify her with the gnostic Sophia. He protects the dead, both their mummies from decay and their souls from attacks in the underworld. Anubis is the son of Nephtys and Set or Osiris according to some stories, Nepthys seduced Osiris which might be an explanation of the enmity between the two gods. He is usually depicted as a jackal-headed man, holding the divine sceptre. Isis and Nephthys represent respectively the things which are and the things which are yet to come into being, the beginning and the end, birth and death, and life and death Egyptian Antiquity Information Her name means "Lady of the house", refering to the part of the sky where Horus lived.
The sister of Isis, wife of Set. She is a goddess of the memory of the dead, and some mages regard her as the "goddess of that which isn't eternal" there is a small sect of Euthanatos who regard her as the goddess of the Good Death.
Nephtys appears to be linked to Isis, both as her opposite and at the same time confidant. She helped her with the resurrection of Osiris, and is often mentioned together with her sister.
He is the god of the fertile soil, especially the Nile mud. He is often represented as a man with green or black skin, and his holy animal was the goose and hence he was often referred to as the "Great Cackler". It was said that he could imprison the souls of the truly vicked so that they could not ascend to heaven or anywhere else. According to the Heliopoletan myth she gave birth to the World Egg. She is often depicted above her husband Geb, held in a semicircle by her father Shu, or as a woman with a vase of water on her head.
Often represented by an ostrich feather similar to Maat or standing on Geb holding his daughter Nuit aloft so that there would be a world between the earth and the sky. Some mages have speculated that Shu is the god of the Gauntlet. Tefnut was depicted in the form of a woman who wears on her head the solar disk circled by two cobras. She holds in her hands the sceptre and ankh. Many times she has the head of a lioness or is shown as one.
Plutarch From the southern sky, the ancients had chosen thirty-six stars or constellations, the decans, whose consecutive helical risings occurred approximately every ten days. The rising of each decan occurred after it had passed seventy days of invisibility, a period corresponding to that of mummification. Among these stars are Osiris Orion and Isis-Sothis Siriussymbols of yearly renewal, of the regeneration of the Nile, of cyclic death and rebirth.
The annual swelling of the Nile begins during the hottest time of the year, at the same time as Sirius rises at the same time as the sun today July This formed the basis of the Egyptian calendar, and the year begun with the rise of Sothis.