Motivation and Emotion - meta - Maastricht University
Abstract. This article summarizes a workshop discussion focused on the current state of our understanding of the ways in which cognitive. Motivation and Emotion. similarity is that both psychological constructs rely on the relationship between an individual and his environment. Motivation and emotion are two central concepts in psychology. Motivation is to explain the relation between motivation, emotion and behaviour from different.
Relationship Between Motivation And Emotion
Further, animals exhibit a phasic depression in the dopamine response when a predicted reward does not occur, which can serve as an indicator that inappropriate actions have been taken or the reward contingencies have changed. Such results are consistent with computational theories of reinforcement learning that postulate that organisms modulate their behavior in response to errors of reward prediction that serve as learning or teaching cues.
Further, the work on incentive motivation provides a way to understand how motivating properties can be transferred from primary reinforcers such as food and water to more abstract reinforcers that predict these primary motivators.
Specifically, this work suggests that in addition to an association being learned between the cue and a reinforcer, a motivational transformation occurs in which the predictive cue the conditioned stimulus takes on at least some of the motivation properties of the unconditioned stimulus.
Despite the wealth of research on animals, there are several areas in which much more basic work is needed to understand how these systems operate even in healthy humans, let alone how they may be impaired among individuals with schizophrenia. First, much of the work in animals has used stimuli that are primary reinforcers, such as food, water, and juice. Recent work suggests that these systems may operate similarly in humans responding to the same types of reinforcers or even more abstract monetary reinforcers.
As described above, incentive motivation theories provide mechanisms by which a predictive cue can take on the motivation properties of an intrinsically rewarding stimulus. However, it is not clear over what temporal distance such associative chains can work.
In fact, it is not at all clear whether the same systems that respond to the prediction of reward in terms of primary reinforcers, or even money, play a role in governing incentive motivation in humans related to very abstract goals such as achievement, safety, or interpersonal relatedness.
Further, very little is known about the neural or psychological mechanisms that give rise to what is often referred to as intrinsic motivation, defined here as the positive feelings associated with an activity or action in the absence of any tangible reward, or actions that are taken for their own sake that do not require external supports or reinforcements to be initiated or sustained.
Nonetheless, these questions 35 are highlighted here to emphasize that an understanding of the basic mechanisms will help us to understand how these mechanisms may go awry in disorders such as schizophrenia.
It is also important to note that there is a very rich basic behavioral science literature on motivation that also has much to offer in our attempts to understand the interrelationship between motivation and cognitive function in schizophrenia.
However, the work coming from this tradition is likely to be highly informative regarding the ways in which expectations about outcomes influence the choices and decisions that individuals with schizophrenia make regarding potentially affectively laden outcomes, as well as the types of individual difference variables that may be important to consider in understanding motivational function in schizophrenia.
Motivation in Schizophrenia Even if we fully understand the neural and psychological mechanisms that support all types of motivational and incentive drives in healthy humans, the workshop members suggested that much remains to be learned about the function of these systems in individuals who have schizophrenia. At the most basic level, much more work is needed on responses to reward and punishment in schizophrenia, in both behavioral and neurophysiological terms.
As noted above, many theories postulate a role for dopamine either in mediating responses to rewards themselves or in learning to predict rewards or learn from error feedback. As alluded to above, there are data to suggest abnormal responses to errors in schizophrenia, both behaviorally and neurophysiologically.
However, the source of such deficits is not clear; nor are many aspects of basic reward or appetitive drive processing in schizophrenia.
Many different types of abnormalities could influence such deficits in reward or error processing, and different mechanisms may point to different directions for treatment. For example, it is not clear whether individuals with schizophrenia have intact responses to basic or primary reinforcers such as food, water, or smells, in terms of either behavior or brain function.
Anhedonia, or the inability to experience pleasure, has long been considered a key symptom of schizophrenia. However, the assessment of anhedonia symptoms is often done based on clinical interview or responses to questionnaires, which may or may not reflect how individuals respond when presented with specific stimuli.
Many studies have examined self-reports of either valence or arousal to stimuli such as words, pictures, films, or faces, many of which suggest relatively intact pleasure responses. Second, it is not clear whether responses to secondary reinforcers than can also serve to predict primary rewards i. As with a number of other areas, there is conflicting evidence in this regard, with at least 1 study suggesting intact responses to monetary rewards and punishment in a gambling task 49 and another showing impaired performance.
Relationship Between Motivation And Emotion - Information Guide in Nigeria
At an even more complicated level, we know almost nothing about even more abstract aspects of motivation in schizophrenia, such as the development of intrinsic motivation. Measurement Issues In addition to work focused on understanding the basic mechanisms of motivation, reward processing, and incentive drives, in both healthy individuals and individuals with schizophrenia, the workshop members felt that more work is also needed on measurement issues.
If motivational factors have a critical influence on cognition in schizophrenia, then it would be important to have reliable, valid, and practical measures of motivation. One can measure motivation behaviorally, in the sense of examining when an organism works toward some putatively desirable goals i. However, such an approach to measuring motivation could be time consuming and potentially confounded by cognitive deficits themselves.
There are questionnaire-based approaches available for measuring constructs such as 1 behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition, which assess individual differences in reactivity to reward and threat cues; 51 2 promotion drive toward obtaining positive outcomes and avoiding the absence of such positive outcomes and prevention drive toward avoiding negative outcomes ; 52 and 3 intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation, such as the Motivational Trait Questionnaire.
More specifically, the tasks that we use in the laboratory tend to be very cold tasks that use stimuli that have no particular personal salience for the individual or motivational relevance. We may increase our ability to predict life function from cognitive performance by creating tasks that use stimuli that more clearly tap into the kinds of salient information that people have to manipulate in their everyday lives.
There is a growing body of work on the use of such tasks in the social cognitive neuroscience literature, 54—56 and schizophrenia researchers may wish to adapt such paradigms for work in clinical populations. Cognitive Influences on Motivation The workshop members also suggested that it is important to examine the possibility of a different type of relationship between cognition and motivation, namely, the possibility that cognitive deficits in schizophrenia could be contributing to motivational deficits in schizophrenia, as well as or instead of motivational deficits leading to the appearance of cognitive deficits.
Tomarken and Keener 57 have put forth a similar argument in trying to explain the functional importance of frontal asymmetries in understanding vulnerability to depression. Numerous studies have demonstrated that individuals with schizophrenia have deficits in working memory or the ability to actively maintain information over time. If motivation depends in part on the ability to actively represent and maintain information about anticipated rewards, then deficits in the ability to maintain such representations could contribute to motivational or anticipatory pleasure deficits.
Such a hypothesis is consistent with recent work on the neural systems supporting emotional regulation. As noted above, many theories posit a central role for the dopamine system in these functions. All of the medications used as primary treatments for schizophrenia have an influence on the dopamine system, with many of them serving to block 1 or more dopamine-receptor types. As such, it is possible that the medications used to ameliorate some symptoms of schizophrenia may actually be contributing to motivational disturbances or reductions in responses to pleasurable stimuli.
It seems unlikely that all components of reduced motivation or even anhedonic symptoms in schizophrenia can be attributed to medications, as the clinical literature contains reports of such symptoms in this illness long before medications were available to treat schizophrenia. Stress and Other Aspects of Emotional Processing The majority of this article has been focused on additional research needed to understand the relationships among motivation, incentive drives, and cognitive function in schizophrenia.
Emotions possess five elements, they are: Shows an evaluation of events Bodily symptoms: These are the psychological symptoms of emotional experiences Action tendencies: Directs motor impulses Expression: This most times accompanies an emotional state, it reveals the intention of action.Motivation and Emotion: theories
The subjective experience of emotional state once it has occurred There are three basic relationships between motivation and emotion, and they are 1. Emotions possess motivational properties of their own 2. Emotions go hand in hand with motives 3. The motives of motivation and the arousal of emotion both activate behaviour.
Emotion and motivation are related in two major ways How are emotions and motivation related? It is normal for humans to carry out actions that they believe will bring them happiness and a whole lot of positive emotions.
With this in mind it becomes obvious that emotions are a form of reward for certain motivated behaviour. As a result of this, it can be said that emotions also have an effect on motivation in the sense that they bring about an increase in the possibility of a certain behaviour being exhibited at a certain time. Behaviours that have brought about reward when performed by an individual will be easily exhibited by an individual when the individual finds himself in such a situation.
Few examples of this include: A young man will be more motivated to work-out if working out has in anytime helped him get a lady he desires.
A student will be more motivated to read inspirational books if the knowledge he gained from reading inspirational books in the past made him sound intelligent and learned in the sight of his peers and tutors alike.
A long distance runner will be well motivated to take lots of water if the amount of water that he took in the past helped him avoid dehydration and made him win a long distance race. A young singer will be motivated to stay clear of a cold weather if the clarity of his voice in the past is very well associated with feelings of euphoria on stage.
A military officer will be motivated to put on full body amour when going into a battle against a hostile opposition if being completely covered had saved his life in previous encounters with a hostile opposition.
Motivation and Emotion
Secondly, emotions have a direct impact on motivation in the sense that emotional experiences are a powerful influence on motivation. Emotions have an impact on motivation intrinsically, this is a more favourable form of motivation to the person being motivated because it leads to a total dependence on self.
I n this type of emotional influence on motivation, an assignment or task to be carried out gives the executor of the task some sense of dignity and pleasure hereby leading to a level of motivation. This kind of emotional influence on motivation is usually experienced by sportsmen, athletes, clergymen, musicians, artistes, academicians, parents especially mothers, computer nerds and school counsellors. Some examples of this are A football goalkeeper will more often than not put in his best performance into a football match not necessarily because he will get paid at the end of the game but because he enjoys not conceding goals.