Introduction: Philosophy of Education and Philosophy - Oxford Handbooks
The Relation of Philosophy of Education to Philosophy. For much of What is it about art that entitles it, if it is so entitled, to a place in the curriculum? According. "The aim of art education in the public schools is not to make more professional artists but to teach people to live happier, fuller lives; to extract more out of their. Barbara Westfall's philosophy of art and art education. Learning has a relationship with others and with material items in the world. In order for learning to take.
I became a visual art educator because I discovered at a young age the value of the visual arts in my daily life.
The Aesthetics of Existence and the Difference in the Encounter of Art and Education
The act of creating art helped me to create my own identity. The process of developing an idea and seeing that idea come to fruition by my own hand gave me a sense of accomplishment unequaled in any other educational experience I recall. The lessons I learned through art I find applicable within every other aspect of my life and learning. What do I believe about visual art education? I believe that visual art education is an integral part of a student's complete education.
I have come to believe through personal experience that the arts teach a student to make decisions and problem-solve. The arts harbor a sense of value and accomplishment.
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The arts help foster an individual sense of identity which in turn helps a student develop as an individual. What will a student in my class come to experience and learn? A student in my classroom will encounter a multitude of art media from 2-dimensional to technology. They will participate in the artistic process from an idea's inception to creation through reflection and critique to exhibition.
Art would still be a way to understand the new ethical requirements in the face of plurality as well as to overcome the Enlightenment educational projects, while it might be a gateway to the moral life as education for otherness.
Finally, the author suggests a reconciliation between ethics and aesthetics, in which, through education, man would constitute a second nature, which is not only ethical creator of customsbut also aesthetic reality producerwhere their moral autonomy becomes a form of aesthetic creation.
She argues that the invention of self proposed by Foucault is not an individualist or superficial act, as stated by Welsch and his commentators. Inthere is another text by Hermann, in which the author once again problematizes the possibility of the aesthetic experience act on moral sensitivity. In this work, she questions some assumptions of Kantian rationalism and the loss of sense of art in modernity.
According to the author, the aestheticized ethics appear when we have the decline of traditional ethics guided by reason. For her, today, the term aesthetics leaves the exclusive field of art and turns to the sensitive one, while the theory of art goes to all fields of life. There it is the aesthetical phenomenon: Art and its teaching now have the function of refuge to plurality, to difference, to what is strange, to the innovative and all that is irreducible to the rational, influencing the creation of new lifestyles and new action guidelines, which generate the aestheticized ethics.
The way out, so this process does not become demeaning, would be to make the aesthetic experience bring new interpretations to ethical principles. The result of this process would have opened, according to Hermann, new possibilities for education, like multiculturalism, aesthetic education, the transgression between science and art, etc.
In this line, the art would have the function of forming sharp sensitivities and contributing to the creation of an art of living, in order to enable the game of Kantian practical reason, of exercising universal judgment, to be put into practice. Although differently, the author tries, as does Foucault, to think of an art of living. Hermann bets on a relationship between morality and aesthetics, on the creation of an art of living in which the universal and the particular produce together the shared world.
This game between the particular and the universal is what would allow mankind to decide and lead their life. The tension on only one side of this game could lead not only to an instrumental rationality, but also to an aesthetic self-stylization which, in the fight against the production of objectified subject or mass-produced subjects, would never be able to create a common ethos.
Many authors accept that justification, even if in a tinted way, to think the relationship between ethics, aesthetics and education.
It proceeds as follows: I propose to discuss here the issue of ethical-aesthetical teacher training having Michel Foucault and his hermeneutics of the subject as the main theoretical tool, and using as an empirical material, some cinema and television audiovisual narratives. I suppose it could make an important part of teacher training the education of the look, sensitivity education, ethics education, whose source could be, among many other possibilities, some immersion exercises in audiovisual languages: To achieve this goal, she mobilizes notions such as care of the self and genealogy in order to understand what we are and how we can differ it.
In addition, this author points out something massively repeated by the authors of the corpus: Most authors part from the concept of crisis or that we would be facing a change of the traditional and the modern paradigm for contemporary ways of education.
Such ways will be proposed by various strategies, as shown below, each of which suggesting several functions and features to the art and its teaching. In this context, art is often stated as an aesthetic phenomenon and the engine for the creation of the new in education Costa, The Crisis in Education Some authors - for example, Pellanda - discuss the disenchantment of life and education, in modernity, on the assumption that emotion and imagination would have been relegated to the background and therefore art would be divorced from life, as well as imagination and emotion denied as cognitive tools.
Pressing issues, such as high culture versus popular culture, education versus work, the crisis in higher education, the art of ethnic groups taken as folklore, the fact that feminism has not influenced the visual arts courses and the not overcoming of the exclusionary University, would demonstrate, according to the researchers, the power relations that sustain the university and would need to be surpassed, and that should be considered as stimulating elements for overcoming the crisis.
It is also often argued that, today, teachers would face new paradigms, making it necessary to understand how art practices can become an instrument of resistance able to give voice to the student against the hegemony of bourgeois culture.
This paradigm shift would be sustained in authors as Foucault, Jorge Larossa, Henri Giroux, Stuart Hall, and Tomaz Tadeu Guerra,as well as in the last century changes, including the Nietzschean thought, criticism of rationalism and changes in science highlighted by Humbert Maturana and Ilya Prigogine.
These changes would produce new relationships between science, life and art, and we would live the end of certainties, in which everything becomes becoming, so it would be necessary to invent life at every moment and take life as a work of art Pellanda, The Production of Interventions Around andthere is, along with the theoretical discussions to overcome the crisis in education, an incentive to produce practical interventions, based on the philosophical concepts.
There are texts that take certain art practices, such as the clown, for production and reinvention of self, which seek art as an ally in the process of inventing lines of flight in life Kasper, This practice proposes to carry out a variation of self, able to escape the patterns of a biopolitics logic - which would imply powers over the bodies - in favor of the affirmation of a biopotency - which is about a potency of the body.
Similarly, there are texts that intend to cinematize education, as did Deleuze to Philosophy Fantin, In such a proposal on cinema and imagination or on the different ways to watch a movie, it is asserted that more important than the film itself is the relationship established with it. There is still a text that discusses the mandatory teaching of music in school and the frequent confusion between the work features aimed at producing professional musicians and the work aimed at music education Brito, It is indicated by the author, that music in school should not bind to usefulness, be a living art as part of everyday life and of life itself.
The argument would be processed based on humanizing functions of art, on the discussion about the relationship between art as game and play, on reflections about the different art uses, and on the relationship between art, everyday life and becoming. Electing the school as something productive, creative and machinic as a problem, the authors aim to analyze the school in its singularity, glimpsing an education that goes beyond the outline of the shape, definition, training and body, and that is able to open to the body transmutation, to disease, to contamination as composition; that is, a school as a work of art, available to the becomings of education.
There are also certain art practices recommended by the Education Visual Culture ECVwhich takes them as a new way to view image in the classroom, questioning notions such as the universal, the hegemonic, the formal, noting that today there is the prevalence of image over language. The texts about this subject Martins; Pereira; Valencia, suggest, based on Foucault, the discussion on the effects of power to seek other more democratic alternatives, legitimated by the images.
Thus, they perceive interpretation and image understanding as a repertoire of life and subjectivity, which makes it possible to legitimize the marginal speeches. They deny the formal, objective, universal and representational approaches as the embodiment of truth and bet on an education able to understand that it is about mediated and socially constructed ways of seeing.
Their method consists in distrusting the dominant images that expel the different and use the image as an effect of truth. They see contemporary art as a plurality of opinions. In this perspective, the image serves to deconstruct the hegemonic models of normality, allowing an approach without the exclusion of differences, identities and otherness.
With regard to education, the researchers argue that the ECV would be important for the development of critical thinking in order to live in the society of the spectacle and consumption. As a teaching tool, image and art have their importance associated with the dissolution of prejudice, by giving voice to the subjectivity of the student.
Art would have the function to re-enchant education, due to its potential to trigger cognitive-ontological processes, to rescue the emotions and build a better world, to make students aesthetically build the school and, therefore, unsettle it and open it to the becomings.
Art would propose new experiences and other ways of living, and would free us from the present, creating other different worlds Oliveira, Fonseca, In such context, in which art relates to educational practices, it should not express transcendent essences nor externalize ways of seeing the world.
It proposes an art as learning events or the class as a work of art Zordan, Moreover, it is stressed, based on Nietzsche and Deleuze, the notion of art as pure indeterminacy, as an inopportune and untimely entity, or as a line of flight that breaks up with what is called good education Costa, It would be able to produce a destabilization of education, to make the curriculum seductive and to keep the art alive as an inventive spirit.
It is also proposed a practical educational art in the order of the desire, of the machinic, of the free expression, of the event, which is called Curricularte. To this a few recommendations to the artist-teacher is added: Another Education and Another Student This context of a new education proposal is intensified toward the affirmation of a non-school education subject.
There are authors who question, with the readings of the works of Foucault and Derrida, the economic education of young people at the expense of comprehensive training, suggesting the resumption of libertarian pedagogy and queer theory to think of education, as well as associate these pedagogies to Visual Culture as a way of overcoming art education 3.
In this context, Visual Culture would crave to encourage the production of a student to see the world and themselves in a less predetermined way, expanding the content of possibilities in the classroom and dissolving hierarchies and prejudice of origin of the objects. For Visual Culture, school should be transformed into a space that respects the individuality of students in such a way that the choices and individual development processes should not be lost through the dictatorship of the majority.
As we can see, it is present the idea to propose or build lines of flight, through a pedagogy based on philosophical concepts.
In this line of thought, there are texts that seek to analyze the knowledge-power device of didactics and propose the epistemological basis to build a didactic of the work of art. This would be based on a decreased use of language in agency, territorial and rhizomatic dispossession processes as well as in the acts of resistance to doxa, communication and representation Pougy, It is believed that the poetic and the creation, in the classroom, are born out of the noisy moments of miscommunication, that is, resistance.
And that the thought would not be a servile activity related to solutions with already given condition. Therefore, art, as a prospect of creation in Deleuzian sense, would be the best guide to the didactics of the work of art able to see with other eyes the school failures.
There are also authors Brito,p.
This lower education would be characterized as a search for changes, being committed to libertarian values. In short, we would have as a starting point of most authors a sense of crisis and the proposition of ways to overcome it, from the materialization of philosophical concepts to the educational reality.
In this context, art would play a role in overcoming it, to which functions and features combined with certain philosophy of education are assigned. Also, an educational subject would be proposed for both art education and for education in general, which would be designed in the midst of seeking to overcome a purely academic education, as well as the effervescence of new educational forms and lines of flight of inventions.
Two Dissenting Voices As we can see, these authors bet on the proposition of an aesthetics of existence founded on guided justifications for collective or political nature causes, as well as on proposing actions projects from the conceptual framework of the philosophy of difference. Jardel Sander problematizes the body and its relation to the subjectification, culture and artistic creation processes. The author declares he recognizes the relationship between art, creation and capitalism; however, he highlights that certain arts work as new possibilities that escape the capital, because they deny permanence.
Stressing the idea of art as an alternative to instrumental rationality, he questions, based on Nietzsche, whether today the body would not be a major reason or the final resting place of the subject, indicating the body-invention that would oppose to the entity body. However, the most important idea for this study, in his text, deals with the interpretation woven by the author of the concept of aesthetics of existence: This excerpt refers to the central discussion undertaken by Hermann and Loponte, presented at the beginning.
Contradicting Loponte but also his opponent, Sander states that the aesthetics of existence could not occur in the political body, but only in art, thus indicating that there would be a third way of thinking about the aesthetics of existence, for Foucault. These clues lead to a famous passage from an interview repeatedly cited in the analyzed articles.
The excerpt continually reminded by Foucault authors is as follows: What surprises me is the fact that in our society, art has turned into something related only to objects and not to individuals or to life; that art is something specialized or produced by experts who are artists.
Why should a lamp or a house be an object of art, but not our life? Foucault,p. In a segment before this one above, Foucault presents something surprising. The author states that, over the centuries, we would be convinced that the way one conducts his personal life, the everyday household, the sexual acts, etc. However, given the patent artificiality that accompany the forge of this link between the political and social life and our personal life, Foucault suggests that it is abandoned. That is, when acting in a certain way, would the subject question how this way to behave was forged?
By claiming an alleged volition, or shape, or corporeality, would the subject know the source of them? And at knowing that this volition or that body could be just ghosts produced socially, but not necessarily, would the subject still be able to be beyond the realm of social rules? Further, his interviewers questioned whether the subject should be constituted without using knowledge or universal rules, as does Sartrean existentialism.
- Introduction: Philosophy of Education and Philosophy
Foucault argues that, despite some convolutions, Sartre ends by claiming that the artist in their creative work, should turn themselves to create something authentic, but their way of understanding the creative work would be something quite different: Thus, it would not be about emphasizing the relationship of a man to himself, but involving the kind of relationship that one has with oneself with a creative activity as a practice in which one can create a unique way of life, which, when experienced, can be accepted, or not, in the social field.
Therefore, for Foucault, the power struggle between morality and aesthetics would not be on the agenda. It would not be based on ethical or moral principles that the aesthetics of existence would be defined.