Body weight status was not associated with academic achievement. and their parents were surveyed about the child's diet, physical activity. student receives per week and learning, as well as relationships .. nutrition, physical activity, fitness, and academic achievement levels, but. their University exam results to see the effect of physical activity of students on correlation between physical activity and academic performance. . Students who are physically active choose good foods, foods with high nutritional value and.
Regular participation in physical activity also is a national learning standard for physical education, a standard intended to facilitate the establishment of habitual and meaningful engagement in physical activity NASPE, Yet although physical fitness and participation in physical activity are established as learning outcomes in all 50 states, there is little evidence to suggest that children actually achieve and maintain these standards see Chapter 2.
Statewide and national datasets containing data on youth physical fitness and academic performance have increased access to student-level data on this subject Grissom, ; Cottrell et al. Early research in South Australia focused on quantifying the benefits of physical activity and physical education during the school day; the benefits noted included increased physical fitness, decreased body fat, and reduced risk for cardiovascular disease Dwyer et al.
Even today, Dwyer and colleagues are among the few scholars who regularly include in their research measures of physical activity intensity in the school environment, Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: The researchers concluded that additional time dedicated to physical education did not inhibit academic performance Shephard et al.
Longitudinal follow-up investigating the long-term benefits of enhanced physical education experiences is encouraging but largely inconclusive. Findings suggest that physical education was associated with physical activity in later life for females but not males Trudeau et al.
Longitudinal studies such as those conducted in Sweden and Finland also suggest that physical education experiences may be related to adult engagement in physical activity Glenmark, ; Telama et al. From an academic performance perspective, longitudinal data on men who enlisted for military service imply that cardiovascular fitness at age 18 predicted cognitive performance in later life Aberg et al.
Specifically, they examined the individual contributions of aerobic capacity, muscle strength, muscle flexibility, and body composition to performance in mathematics and reading on the Illinois Standardized Achievement Test among a sample of children. Their findings corroborate those of the California Department of Education Grissom,indicating a general relationship between fitness and achievement test performance.
When the individual components of the Fitnessgram were decomposed, the researchers determined that only aerobic capacity was related to test performance.
Muscle strength and flexibility showed no relationship, while an inverse association of BMI with test performance was observed, such that higher BMI was associated with lower test performance. Although Baxter and colleagues confirmed the importance of attending school in relation to academic performance through the use of 4th-grade student recall, correlations with BMI were not significant. State-mandated implementation of the coordinated school health model requires all schools in Texas to conduct annual fitness testing Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: In a special issue of Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sportmultiple articles describe the current state of physical fitness among children in Texas; confirm the associations among school performance levels, academic achievement, and physical fitness Welk et al.
Also using data from Texas schools, Van Dusen and colleagues found that cardiovascular fitness had the strongest association with academic performance, particularly in mathematics over reading. Unlike previous research, which demonstrated a steady decline in fitness by developmental stage Duncan et al.
Aerobic fitness, then, may be important to academic performance, as there may be a dose-response relationship Van Dusen et al. Using a large sample of students in gradesChomitz and colleagues found that the likelihood of passing both mathematics and English achievement tests increased with the number of fitness tests passed during physical education class, and the odds of passing the mathematics achievement tests were inversely related to higher body weight.
Similar to the findings of Castelli and colleaguessocioeconomic status and demographic factors explained little of the relationship between aerobic fitness and academic performance; however, socioeconomic status may be an explanatory variable for students of low fitness London and Castrechini, In sum, numerous cross-sectional and correlational studies demonstrate small-to-moderate positive or null associations between physical fitness Grissom, ; Cottrell et al.
Moreover, the findings may support a dose-response association, suggesting that the more components of physical fitness e. From a public health and policy standpoint, the conclusions these findings support are limited by few causal inferences, a lack of data confirmation, and inadequate reliability because the data were often collected by nonresearchers or through self-report methods.
It may also be noted that this research includes no known longitudinal studies and few randomized controlled trials examples are included later in this chapter in the discussion of the developing brain.
In a meta-analysis, Sibley and Etnier found a positive relationship between physical activity and cognition in school-age youth agedsuggesting that physical activity, as well as physical fitness, may be related to cognitive outcomes during development.
Since that meta-analysis, however, several papers have reported robust relationships between aerobic fitness and different aspects of memory in children e. Regardless, the comprehensive review of Sibley and Etnier was important because it helped bring attention to an emerging literature suggesting that physical activity may benefit cognitive development even as it also demonstrated the need for further study to better understand the multifaceted relationship between physical activity and cognitive and brain health.
The regular engagement in physical activity achieved during physical education programming can also be related to academic performance, especially when the class is taught by a physical education teacher. In an experimental design, seven elementary schools were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: No significant differences by condition were found for mathematics testing; however, reading scores were significantly higher in the specialist condition relative to the control condition Sallis et al.
The authors conclude that spending time in physical education with a specialist did not have a negative effect on academic performance. Shortcomings of this research include the amount of data loss from pre- to posttest, the use of results of 2nd-grade testing that exceeded the national Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: In seminal research conducted by Gabbard and Bartonsix different conditions of physical activity no activity; 20, 30, 40, and 50 minutes; and posttest no activity were completed by 2nd graders during physical education.
Each physical activity session was followed by 5 minutes of rest and the completion of 36 math problems.
Physical Fitness, Grit, School Attendance, and Academic Performance among Adolescents
The authors found a potential threshold effect whereby only the minute condition improved mathematical performance, with no differences by gender. A longitudinal study of the kindergarten class ofusing data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, investigated the association between enrollment in physical education and academic achievement Carlson et al.
Higher amounts of physical education were correlated with better academic performance in mathematics among females, but this finding did not hold true for males.
Ahamed and colleagues found in a cluster randomized trial that, after 16 months of a classroom-based physical activity intervention, there was no significant difference between the treatment and control groups in performance on the standardized Cognitive Abilities Test, Third Edition CAT Others have found, however, that coordinative exercise Budde et al.
Specifically, Coe and colleagues examined the association of enrollment in physical education and self-reported vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity outside school with performance in core academic courses and on the Terra Nova Standardized Achievement Test among more than 6th-grade students. Their findings indicate that academic performance was unaffected by enrollment in physical education classes, which were found to average only 19 minutes of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity.
When time spent engaged in vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity outside of school was considered, however, a significant positive relation to academic performance emerged, with more time engaged in vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity being related to better grades but not test scores Coe et al.
Studies of participation in sports and academic achievement have found positive associations Mechanic and Hansell, ; Dexter, ; Crosnoe, ; Eitle and Eitle, ; Stephens and Schaben, ; Eitle, ; Miller et al. The findings of these studies need to be interpreted with caution as many of their designs failed to account for the level of participation by individuals in the sport e.
Further, it is unclear whether policies required students to have higher GPAs to be eligible for participation.
Offering sports opportunities is well justified regardless of the cognitive benefits, however, given that adolescents may be less likely to engage in risky behaviors when involved in sports or other extracurricular activities Page et al. Although a consensus on the relationship of physical activity to academic achievement has not been reached, the vast majority of available evidence suggests the relationship is either positive or neutral.
The meta-analytic review by Fedewa and Ahn suggests that interventions entailing aerobic physical activity have the greatest impact on academic performance; however, all types of physical activity, except those involving flexibility alone, contribute to enhanced academic performance, as do interventions that use small groups about 10 students rather than individuals or large groups.
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Regardless of the strength of the findings, the literature indicates that time spent engaged in physical activity is beneficial to children because it has not been found to detract from academic performance, and in fact can improve overall health and function Sallis et al.
Single Bouts of Physical Activity Beyond formal physical education, evidence suggests that multi-component approaches are a viable means of providing physical activity opportunities for children across the school curriculum see also Chapter 6. Although health-related fitness lessons taught by certified physical education teachers result in greater student fitness gains relative to such lessons taught by other teachers Sallis et al.
Single sessions or bouts of physical activity have independent merit, offering immediate benefits that can enhance the learning experience.
Grit and a total number of absences are significant contributors to academic success, particularly among Hispanic adolescents. Further, grit and school attendance may serve as a better measure of protective factors over proximal health measures of cardiovascular health and BMI.
In the ensuing years, researches into the effects of physical fitness and academic achievement have shown a compelling argument for a possible relationship between the two.
Furthermore, a review of literature by Tomporowski et al. Despite this, few studies in this line of inquiry have reported actual school attendance as a confirmatory variable of their self-efficacious, amount of learning time, and effort toward AP.
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Physical Fitness, Cognition, and Academic Performance Adolescents who regularly participate in physical activity, including visual-motor coordination [ 3 ] and coordinated movement [ 4 ], and who are aerobically fit [ 56 ] perform better academically than those youth who are sedentary.
Further, health risk factors such as inflammatory biomarkers among children [ 7 ] and adiposity [ 89 ] have been found to be negatively related to academic achievement. Modifiable lifestyle behaviors like healthy diet, sleep, and physical activity participation, over body weight alone, are strongly associated with academic performance [ 10 ].
Such findings suggest that school-based health interventions that focus on increasing physical activity engagement and healthy eating will likely benefit the youth, both physically and cognitively. Because executive function and cognitive control subserve learning, such effects are contributory to overall academic success [ 14 ], given this evidence it is justified to recommend that schools offer opportunities to be physically active before, during, and after the school day.
The Link Between Nutrition and Physical Activity in Increasing Academic Achievement.
It is important to note that the cognitive benefits associated with physical activity and fitness are not unilateral but instead are specific to the type, timing, and intensity of physical activity. Further, it was also concluded that multimodal e. Despite the positive effects among differing modalities of physical activity intervention programs, it should be stated that the success of these programs cannot replace the learning experiences of traditional physical education or guarantee enhanced AP.
Not all interventions have equal cognitive benefits. BC [ 17 ] failed to show an increase in academic achievement among elementary students. However, the additional time dedicated to physical activity did not result in adverse effects on academic achievement. Given the equivocal results to date, the question remains, what type, timing, and intensity of physical activity might increase the likelihood that those adolescents perform better in school.
Specifically, socioeconomic status SES and ethnicity have been identified as significant nonmodifiable inhibitors of academic success [ 18 ].
The National Center for Education Statistics has identified an achievement gap between Hispanic and White students in the public schools [ 19 ]. Considering that the U. The comorbidity of low SES, ethnicity, and low academic performance is complicated further as lower SES students also have an increased likelihood of health-related fitness standards falling below healthy criteria [ 20 ]. Coe and colleagues [ 18 ] found an educational and fitness disparity among 1, 3rd, 6th, and 9th-grade students, with low SES being a proximal variable in understanding the relationship between fitness and academic performance.
In the lower SES schools that might be experiencing limited access to resources and high pressure to perform academically, focusing on both educational outcomes and health issues may not be a priority. As such, one way to address ethnic differences in AP is to reduce the health risk among Hispanic children by increasing their rate of participation in physical activity [ 21 ], which has been associated with academic success [ 2223 ].
Psychosocial Determinants of Academic Success and Physical Activity Participation Beyond nonmodifiable factors, modifiable factors like an individual perception of various psychological constructs may provide additional insight into decomposing the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance.The positive effects of physical activity and nutrition on stress and academic performance
Although over studies suggest that physical fitness and to a lesser degree physical activity are positively related to cognitive performance, few studies have controlled for confounding variables such as age, ethnicity, intelligence, and psychosocial effect related to academic achievement [ 22 ].
Further, rarely did studies account for the potential of lost learning time associated with absences from school. Grit has been used as a global measure of behavior and goal acquisition that has been validated among a range of behavioral outcomes ranging from military academy matriculation, Ivy League grade point average, and national spelling bee achievement [ 24 — 26 ].
The underlying assumptions of grit research are that the individual displays a stable, but modifiable persistence toward achieving long-term goals. Such a disposition supports success in a wide range of endeavors. Research by Reed, Pritschet, and Cutton has demonstrated that grit is a significant predictor of moderate to vigorous PA MVPA ; however, further research is warranted to understand the relationship between grit, PA, and physical fitness.
Attending school, particularly in secondary education, remains an issue in the United States, with over 5 million school-aged children missing at least 30 days of school per year [ 27 ].
Of even more concern is when the adolescent may be absent the days leading up to the administration of academic achievement tests [ 28 ]. Missing school represents a critical loss of learning time and test preparation. Although attending school alone is not a representation of engagement in learning, not being in school inhibits academic success. Given the existing achievement gap and health disparities between White and Hispanic adolescent students, as well as the potential to address these health and educational issues through PA interventions, this study examined the relationship of these variables to AP.
Specifically, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of grit, as a construct representing passion and perseverance to overcome barriers, and school attendance to academic achievement and proxy health measures while controlling for school demographics and attendance. Methods Multiple Institutional Review Boards approved this study at the university, district, and individual school level, with each governing body requiring that each human subject and a guardian actively consent to participate in this study.
Specifically, parental consent and adolescent assent were secured for each participant. An overview of the study was presented during physical education and health classes, and once consent and assent were secured, data were collected during physical education classes. Participants In this study, adolescents enrolled in secondary education grades 7—12, across one large southern school district which serves over 83, students in a minority-majority city were recruited for this study.