Malaria Resistance and Sickle Cell Trait - microbewiki
Researchers discover how carriers of the sickle-cell anaemia gene are protected from malaria. Sickle cell trait has repeatedly been identified as a major human malaria resistance factor. Despite this, the exact mechanism of resistance is unclear. Sickle Cell Trait (SCT) has been shown to be protective against malaria. A growing literature suggests that malaria exposure can reduce.
Sickle Cell Anaemia and Malaria
Individuals heterozygous for the trait are not prone to the same severity of symptoms as homozygous recessive individuals. The anopheles mosquito transmits the disease through its saliva, but it must have first received the Plasmodium parasite from an infected human from which it took blood.
Malaria can be transmitted without anopheles mosquitos if blood is somehow transported from an infected human to someone else. Some possible methods of transmission include, but are not limited to, blood transfusions, organ transplants, sharing needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy. This usually takes from ten days to a few weeks depending on the species of Plasmodium and is known as the exoerythrocytic phase. This is known as the erythrocytic phase.
It is here where most symptoms start to become evident. The parasite will either keep reproducing asexually or form gametocytes, which only undertake gametogenesis if they are taken up by a mosquito. The erythrocytic phase can cause jaundice and anemia due to the higher than normal rate of blood cell loss, either in the form of abnormal hemolysis or excessive erythrocyte breakdown in the spleen.
- Protective Effect of Sickle Cell Trait Against Malaria-Associated Mortality And Morbidity
- Medical Animation
Depending on the species of Plasmodium that is causing the infection and the level of natural immunity in the host, symptoms can range from nonexistent to lethal. The history of sickle cell anaemia SCA lists several gold medals. First, it was for SCA that the term molecular disease was coined over half a century ago 1and this led to the notion of haemoglobinopathies. Second, when the structural abnormality of haemoglobin Hb S was pinpointed 2this was the first time that a single amino acid replacement in a protein was shown to cause a serious disease.
Third, once the three-dimensional structure of Hb was solved 3 it became clear why Hb S had the unique characteristic of being normal when oxygenated, but abnormal when deoxygenated. Thus, the entire field of human molecular genetics is greatly indebted to SCA; at the same time, as far as haematology is concerned, SCA is a major chapter within haemolytic anaemias.
Malaria Resistance and Sickle Cell Trait
Here we intend to discuss briefly one aspect of this condition that is eminently germane to the very name of this journal: The relationship is complex.
However, the first to formulate this notion in terms of Darwinian selection was J B S Haldane, who speculated that, depending on their genetic makeup, people would have a different risk of dying when they are confronted by a parasitic organism: First, one type of malaria, that caused by Plasmodium falciparum, is highly lethal. Second, it is estimated to have been around in many parts of the world for several thousands of years, i.
Written by Girish Khera on June 19, Biochemical as well as demographic evidence substantiates the theory that sickle-cell anemia imparts resistance to malaria. The relationship between malaria and sickle cell anemia, therefore, needs to be studied in detail.
An unconventional approach to understand the path of disease recovery Human body produces two basic types of immune responses: The Atlantic states that as per the research published in the last few years, tolerance may be a crucial factor in determining whether individuals will survive infections such as malaria, cholera, and sepsis.
Therefore, by better understanding the tolerance mechanisms, new ways can be figured out to enhance them and also open unexpected avenues for drug development.
The researchers have envisioned the journey from infection to illness to recovery as a loop. The infected mosquito bites the person and transfers the malarial parasite into his bloodstream that keeps multiplying inside the cell, hidden from the immune system.