The U.S. Government & Policing organizations
Police - Decentralized police organizations: The United States has what may be the most The central government's National Police Agency exerts strong leadership over local police European colonial powers established policing systems in both North Africa and It is active in training, research, and public relations. There are two levels of police in the United States: Federal and State. The Federal Level includes organizations like the Federal Bureau of. Please describe and analyze the relationship between the U.S. government and the policing organizations throughout the U.S. and the impact of this.
Some of the more controversial policies restrict, or even forbid, high-speed vehicular pursuits.
The distinction has also been defined between rural and urban policing models, which tended to function differently with separate hierarchical systems supporting each. According to a study by James Q.
Wilson "Varieties of Police Behavior", Harvard University Pressthere were three distinct types of policing developed in his study of eight communities. Each style emphasized different police functions, and were linked to specific characteristics of the community the department served.
Wilson's field of study was in the United States, and it is not clear if similar studies have been done for other countries with different governmental organization and laws. This form of policing is implicitly less pro-active than other styles, and certain offenses may be "overlooked" on a variety of social, legal, and cultural grounds, as long as the public order is maintained.
Cole and Smith comment the broad discretion exercised in this style of policing can result in charges of discrimination, when it appears police treatment of different groups results in the perception that some groups get better treatment than others; Legalistic. Emphasizes law enforcement and professionalism.
Law enforcement in the United States
This is usually found in reform-minded cities, with mixed socioeconomic composition. Officers are expected to generate a large number of arrests and citations, and act as if there were a single community standard for conduct, rather than different standards for different groups. However, the fact that certain groups are more likely to have law enforcement contact means this strict enforcement of laws may seem overly harsh on certain groups; Service.
Emphasizes the service functions of police work, usually found in suburban, middle-class communities where residents demand individual treatment. Police in homogeneous communities can view their work as protecting their citizens against "outsiders", with frequent but often-informal interventions against community members. The uniform make-up of the community means crimes are usually more obvious, and therefore less frequent, leaving police free to deal with service functions, and traffic control.
Wilson's study applies to police behavior for the entire department, over time. At any given time, police officers may be acting in a watchman, service, or legalistic function by nature of what they're doing at the time, or temperament, or mood.
Individual officers may also be inclined to one style or another, regardless of supervisor or citizen demands.
Community-oriented policing is a shift in policing practices in the U. When there exists probable cause to believe that a person has committed a serious crimea law enforcement officer can handcuff and arrest a person, who will be held in a police station or jail pending a judicial bail determination or an arraignment.
The procedural use of strip searches and cavity searches by law enforcement has raised civil liberties concerns. Of those persons arrested, Contrary to popular belief and Hollywood-style depictions in TV and movies, merely lawfully detaining a person—in and of itself—does not deprive a person of their Fourth Amendment right against unlawful searches.
Federal, state, and local laws, and individual law enforcement departmental policies govern when, where, how, and upon whom a law enforcement officer may perform a "pat down," "protective search," or "Terry frisk," based on several U.
Supreme Court decisions including Terry v. OhioMichigan v. Longand Maryland v. Ohio, the landmark decision introducing the term "Terry frisk," or "frisk," to the broader public: The officer need not be absolutely certain that the individual is armed; the issue is whether a reasonably prudent man in the circumstances would be warranted in the belief that his safety or that of others was in danger italics added.
Police - Decentralized police organizations | zolyblog.info
Civil forfeiture in the United States Rules on civil asset forfeiture allow law enforcement officers to seize anything which they can plausibly claim was the proceeds of a crime. Vienna had been the seat of the Austro-Hungarian Empirewhich had maintained an extensive system of police files.
After the war, at a conference held in Brussels inthe organization was reconstituted as Interpol, with headquarters in Paris since in Lyon, France. The bureaus transmit criminal information that may be of interest to other countries; within their own countries, they undertake inquiries, searches, and arrests requested by other countries and take steps to implement resolutions voted on by the annual assembly.
Interpol also maintains and develops databases of fingerprints, DNA records, photographs, and other information that might be useful in tracking down criminals.
Crimes of particular concern for Interpol are trafficking in human beings, transboundary financial and organized crime, and international terrorism.
InterpolInterpol headquarters, Lyon, France. Interpol can act only within the framework of national laws; criminals can be returned only if an extradition treaty is in force and the offender is a national of the country requesting return. In the early 21st century, Interpol was no longer the only international policing organization. Police cooperation between members of the European Union EUfor example, was rapidly developing on the basis of various pieces of transnational legislation enacted by the European Parliamentincluding agreements and conventions against terrorism, drug trafficking, trafficking in human beings, money launderingand organized crime.
The Schengen agreements signed in andwhich allowed freedom of movement between the signatory countries, provided for further coordination between European police forces. The European Police Office Europolestablished in as the European Drugs Unit, supports the law enforcement agencies of all countries in the EU by gathering and analyzing intelligence about members or possible members of international criminal organizations.
Headquartered in The Hague, Europol is far removed from police field operations; its priority is building trust between the many law enforcement organizations with which it liaises.
The U.S. Government & Policing organizations
It is active in training, research, and public relations. The International Police Association was founded in Britain in as a social organization. Although it is most active in Europe, its members come from dozens of countries worldwide. The association grants scholarships for study abroad and travel and arranges annual conferences.
Police work and law enforcement Routine police activities The activities of police forces are adapted to the kinds of societies in which they operate. Some common features of police work in different societies are the result of similar technologies. Yet within the same society—and sometimes even within the same police force—there may be variations.
Law enforcement in the United States - Wikipedia
One police administrator, because of his personal beliefs or because of his perception of public opinionmay allocate more resources to certain types of crime or to certain police duties than to others. Thus, police officers in different neighbourhoods may develop different patterns of policing. Within the framework of enforcement policy, police work is divided into various branches.
The largest number of officers is usually allocated to uniformed patrol, either on foot or with motor transport. As noted in the above section The crisis of policingstudies of the activities of police on patrol indicate that only a small portion of their time goes to making arrests or initiating formal actions under criminal law. Moreover, whether one considers the types of calls for service that police receive, the calls to which police are dispatched, or the activities that police initiate on their own, it is clear that the majority of police activities consist of providing emergency services, maintaining order, resolving disputes, and providing other services.
Police and courts One of the most important ways in which police are held accountable for the manner in which they perform their duties is through the courts. In France and in countries with similar juridical procedures, such as Italypolice officers making inquiries are under the direction of an investigating magistrate. The supervision exercised by the magistrate is in the vast majority of cases perfunctory.
The police conduct their inquiries with a large degree of independence and are generally successful in closing investigations by obtaining confessions from suspects.
Investigating magistrates play an important role only in high-profile investigations, such as those directed at pedophiliapolitical corruption, economic crime, organized crimeand terrorism. The British and American common-law procedure is in principle different, as there is no equivalent of the investigating magistrate, but the institution of the grand jury plays an analogous role.
The grand jury works with the prosecutionwhich has the investigative services of the police at its disposal. Once a case is brought to courtthe proceedings are not as different between the two systems as legal terminology suggests.History of Policing in the U.S. - Part One
The Anglo-Saxon procedure is called adversarial or accusatorial, whereas the procedure in continental Europe is called inquisitorial. The judge or jury reaches a verdict, and the defendant, if convicted, is sentenced. If the accusatorial system is to function justly in Anglo-Saxon countries, the police must bring all cases of lawbreaking before the courts. It is for the court to decide whether punishment is merited. In practice, however, the police exercise considerable discretion as to whom they will prosecute.
Three chief arguments favour police discretion in this area. First, it has proved impossible to draft and keep up-to-date a criminal code that unambiguously encompasses all conduct intended to be deemed criminal; there are technical offenses or offenses that public opinion no longer regards as culpable.
Second, because those charged with enforcing the law do not have sufficient resources to enforce all the laws all the time, enforcement must be selective. The courts control police activities in other ways.