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When a foreign language FL acquisition begins in preschool, at which time young learners are particularly linguistically sensitive, it allows for a higher FL competence in future. The aim of our study was to assess the early predictors of learning English as a Mdtoda Language EFL in Polish pre-school students who had not yet started formal literacy instruction, and to characterize the level of their oral receptive and active skills in English. All were native speakers of Polish, and apart from English classes, communicated in their first language at kindergarten and in their everyday life.
Non-verbal intelligence, emerging literacy, phonological awareness in Polish, and knowledge of English were assessed.
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We found that in Polish pre-school children emerging letter identification from their first language alphabet, phonological awareness in their first language, and non-verbal intelligence were related to the achievements in learning EFL, despite the differences in transparency between the two languages. The participants in our study attempted to communicate in English during the assessment, which suggests that even at a pre-school age they were able to differentiate between first language and FL discourse.
We also identified some problems possibly stemming from linguistic transfer, like articles omissions. Therefore, teachers should pay more emphasis to the differences between the first and the second language, in terms of: The automatisation of correct linguistic habits in young learners would equip them with skills for their later FL educational success. In Poland, learning English as a foreign language EFL combines sequential and subordinative acquisition Kubiak,as formal instruction begins relatively early at pre-school stargu optionally and due to parental decision at 3 years of age, obligatory at 6 years of age, into Reception Year, cf.
Thus, an EFL instruction begins before or simultaneously with literacy instruction in L1. This educational situation creates an opportunity to examine the acquisition of a new language system once the learners have an already relatively extensive knowledge about language as such Kohnert et al.
Language development involves the learning of symbols and of rules that govern them, which is reflected in phonological, morphological-syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills Krasowicz-Kupis, According dovrego the core curriculum published by the Ministry of National Education, children at school entry generally at 7 years of age should: Thus, in Polish pre-schools entry at 3 years of age, due to parental decision; obligatory at 6 years of agespeaking skills and print awareness are developed Krasowicz-Kupis et al.
This type of literacy instruction is adjusted to the characteristics bobdanowicz Polish language. Polish orthography, as compared to English, is more transparent, regular, and consistent in its grapheme-phoneme correspondence Awramiuk and Krasowicz-Kupis, Though both languages follow the Subject — Verb — Object pattern in affirmative sentences, Polish syntax is more flexible.
In fact, the aforementioned word order is only preferable, not mandatory, as a syntactic function of a word is indicated by its morphology suffixes and inflections: The pre-school environment is bobdanowicz artificial condition for learning a FL in a culturally influenced social context.
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This is bogranowicz conspicuous in Poland, which is a largely monolingual country National Census of Wtartu and Housing, and Central Statistical Office of Poland, Thus, the learners have limited opportunities to communicate in a FL outside school, where, in addition, a FL exposure is limited to a FL class, while all other instruction and informal communication is conducted in Polish.
Kersten and Rhode suggest that a pre-school routine should provide the most natural conditions, as this approach improves learning achievements.
Moreover, the aims of teaching should include the development of positive motivation, exposure to foreign speech, and creating bases for systematic linguistic work Komorowska, The core curriculum for preschools published by the Ministry of National Education in Poland states that an aim of pre-school education is to prepare children to use a modern FL through, among others, arousing language awareness and cultural sensitivity while playing games.
Teachers should instruct children in a FL while at play, read them stories, use nursery rhymes, poems, songs, and audio—visual materials in a FL, to provide auditory, pre-literacy contact with a FL in different everyday situations Regulation of the Minister of National Education, Journal of Laws, itemattachment No.
Thus, teaching strategies are based on interactive plays Komorowska,and implicit, fun-focused techniques Aguirre et al. As a result, the young learners should demonstrate specific skills of understanding commands, using simple phrases and nursery rhymes, and understanding the context of stories Regulation of the Minister of National Education, Journal of Laws, itemattachment No. Suggested methods of instruction encourage the EFL pre-school teachers to provide the young learners with an intensive contact with a FL, without the need for immediate oral production by the students Kondrat, Kondrat suggests that all instructions should be given in English, children should learn by repeating, and through participation in science and art projects, using Content and Language Integrated Learning approach.
An early introduction of EFL teaching stems from evidence for its effectiveness. According to the linguistic interdependence theory, the development of L2 competence stems from the competence already developed in the first language L1 at the time when L2 exposure begins Cummins, Similarly, The Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis states that L1 skills provide the basic foundation for learning a FL Ganschow and Sparks,phonological competence in particular Sparks et al. The predictive role of L1 phonological processing skills at a pre-literacy stage for EFL achievement has been reported in few studies.
Phonological awareness allows to differentiate and manipulate phonological elements Melby-Lervag et al. Children at first manipulate smaller, then larger phonological elements, which is influenced by schooling Lipowska, ; Melby-Lervag et al. Syllable and intrasyllabic element awareness precedes letter identification Awramiuk and Krasowicz-Kupis,while phonological sensitivity and letter knowledge reciprocally contribute to the development of one another prior to formal reading instruction Burgess and Lonigan, In 5-year old Chinese children, syllable awareness predicted word reading at ages 8 and 10 Pan et al.
In a bit older 6-year old English native speakers, at an early literacy stage, reading readiness as measured with, e. These studies outlined the importance of the identification of early predictors of a FL; they, however, measured the actual FL proficiency at a later stage of education, when the learners had already received literacy instruction, not the relationship between these early predictors and FL oracy skills in preschool. We intended to add to the existing literature by providing a simultaneous assessment of phonological processing in L1 and EFL skills before the formal literacy instruction began.
The aim of our study was to assess the early predictors of learning EFL in preschool students who had not yet started formal literacy instruction and to characterize the level of their oral receptive and active EFL skills. We assumed that phonological processing and literacy skills, specifically letter identification in L1, would be linked to the development also in FL oral language skills, following the line of thought in Sparks et al.
We also aimed to examine how the young learners respond to the current teaching methodology, by the description and analysis of their actual performance, as compared with the expected one, outlined in the core curriculum.
A unique group of participants took part in our study: We decided to examine such a young group, as, according to a new Polish legislation, English instruction will be obligatory in all kindergartens.
Moreover, Sparks et al. Therefore, we decided to examine both the L1 predictors and the oral L2 skills at pre-school age. As non-verbal IQ and age of L2 acquisition are sometimes included as moderators in L2 acquisition studies cf. Reliability for 5;6 — 5;11 years old children: The test was administered in Polish.
All tasks are based on oral language skills, and supported with pictorial material, as the preschoolers had not yet started formal literacy instruction, even in their NL, according to the state-wide core curriculum.
All metod were native speakers of Polish, and attended the same, min long classes taught by the same teacher. In 1 pre-school, English was taught three times a week, in two pre-schools — once a week, in the morning.
All other activities, classes, and communication with teachers were conducted in Polish. No homework was assigned. All assessments were carried out by the second author at the pre-school.
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During the first session, non-verbal intelligence and emerging literacy in Polish were assessed. During the second session, phonological awareness and knowledge of English were assessed. Each of the sessions lasted about 20 min. All children gave their oral consent to participate. As literacy instruction had not yet started in the pre-school, a small number of children actually knew any bogdannowicz.
Letter identification, phonological awareness, non-verbal IQ, and English oral skills in Polish pre-school children — raw scores. The Polish language tests scores positively correlated statru, strongly, and very strongly with English oral language skills.
Age was entered as an independent variable in Step 1, non-verbal IQ was entered as an independent variable in Step 2, and phonological awareness and letter identification skills in L1 were entered as an independent variable in Step 3, respectively.
Results of two hierarchical regression analyses in which age, non-verbal IQ, and either phonological awareness or letter identification skills in L1 were regressed upon English oral starth skills of Polish pre-school children.
The first regression analysis for English oral language skills showed that the independent variables: Significant independent variables in Step 3 were: The second regression analysis showed that the independent sartu In both models, an apparent prediction of bogdanowizc cf. This result supports the notion of early commencement of a FL education. In their research, the brain activity in the bilateral frontal areas of 5-year-old Japanese native speakers who had been exposed to English for 2 years exposure for at least 15 min per day in their first year, and approximately for 4 h per day in their second year of pre-school instruction was higher for both their L1 and EFL, as compared with the activity for a rarely exposed L3 Chineseand consistent with that in Japanese adults.
No difference in the brain activity for different languages was observed in 4-year olds who had been exposed to English for 1 year only. Conversely, Lecumberri and Gallardo reported that early introduction to formal non-natural exposure to the FL does not facilitate FL sound acquisition, as students who started English instruction at age 8 were better in vowel and consonant discrimination than students who started at age 4 starrtu to the age of our participants who started formal English instruction at the age of 3after identical number of teaching hours.
This could be due to cognitive maturity of the learners and different teaching methods used in school as compared with kindergarten. In our study, we did not assess sound discrimination. In our study, despite attending the same preschools and having been taught by the same teachers, the participants differed substantially in their English oral skills. This disparity might be due to the features of the FL teaching e. We found that phonological awareness in L1 and non-verbal IQ statistical trend predicted English oral language skills of Polish pre-schoolers learning EFL, but apart from EFL class generally instructed in L1, when age and non-verbal IQ were controlled for.
Moreover, we found that letter identification, bogdanowicx to Polish alphabet, and non-verbal IQ predicted English oral language skills of Bogdsnowicz pre-schoolers learning EFL, when age and non-verbal IQ were controlled for. It must be remembered, though, that L2 acquisition differs much from a FL bogdaanowicz, as the latter is characterized by much less exposure to linguistic content, less intensive FL instruction, and fewer options for daily, authentic, and meaningful communication practice.
Nevertheless, our results suggest that the transfer happens also in case of a limited exposure. L1 phonological awareness, especially syllable and phoneme awareness, predicted EFL decoding abilities in 5—6-year old Korean children, who were instructed in English Kang, Similarly, L1 phonological awareness of 5—6-year old pre-literacy, Year 1 pre-school Norwegian students predicted their subsequent EFL spelling, word reading, and translation skills when year old Helland and Morken, Thus, a cross-linguistic transfer of phonological skills occurs in educational contexts of different FL exposure.
However, Chinese tone awareness, but not rhyme awareness, predicted EFL word reading and phonological awareness in 4—6-year old Cantonese native speakers, which suggests a different level of L1 phonological processing impact Yeung and Chan, Therefore, more evidence from other pairs of languages is needed.
The aforementioned findings are consistent with the Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis which states that L1 acquisition skills relate to FL learning skills, due to the phonological code Sparks et al. The authors found that 4—5-year old Polish preschoolers who learned EFL scored higher in a task assessing L1 rhyme recognition which is developed earlier in English than in Polish cf.
However, both groups performed on a level in a L1 alliteration recognition task, and monolinguals outperformed bilinguals in L1 phoneme discrimination, which was interpreted as evidence for a phonological system common for both languages.
Thus, a relation between phonological awareness in L1, FL, and L2 seems to be consistently evidenced in different pairs of languages, both for oral FL, as our study demonstrated, and for literacy skills.
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This is consistent with reports of the influence of non-verbal IQ on L2 learning aptitude Grigorenko et al. Cenoz reported that after h of learning EFL, students who started learning English as L3 L1 — Basque, L2 — Spanish at age 4, were less proficient than those who started at age 8 and 11, likely due to cognitive maturity and less developed test taking strategies.
This finding was supported by an observation that only in three cases did the preschoolers use a Polish word instead of an English one. However, each time the response was semantically correct, demonstrating that the children understood the questions, but lacked vocabulary.
Moreover, in the apple drawing task it was possible for the participants to perform the task based on the lexical knowledge of the word apple only, without understanding the instruction itself, as they were handed a piece of paper and a pencil when instructed.
Moreover, the participants in our study attempted to communicate in English, which suggests that even at a pre-school age they were able to differentiate between L1 and FL discourse. In fact, Singleton claims that the majority of L2 researchers agree that an early and, in particular, substantial exposure to L2 is related to a higher FL proficiency that a later one stwrtu in adolescence or latereven though he does not support the idea of a critical period in metosa FL acquisition.
For example, younger children are more likely to produce words based on fixed, learnt patterns, as compared with older children, who more often employ such strategies as over-generalization, reading pronunciation, or pronunciation guessing, due to cognitive maturation Lecumberri and Gallardo,