), author of ‘Abaqat al-Anwar fi Imamat al-A’immat al-Athar, . The arrival of Ha’iri in Qum not only brought about a revival of its madrasas but also began a. Thirteenth Hadith: Trust In God ( Tawakkul). بِالسَّنَدِ المُتَّصِلِ إِلَى الشَّيْخِ الجَلِيلِ. Imam Khomeini’s selection and exposition of forty ahadith that range over a broad area of Islamic philosophy, Islamic ideology, Islamic ethics, metaphysics and.
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It is in many ways remarkable that ten years after his death khomeni twenty years after the triumph of the revolution that he led no serious, comprehensive biography of Imam Ruhullah al-Musawi al-Khumayni has yet been written, whether in Persian or any other language.
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He was, after all, the pre-eminent figure of recent Islamic history, for his impact, considerable enough in Iran itself, has also reverberated throughout much of the Muslim world and helped to transform the worldview and consciousness of many Muslims. The materials available for the task are, however, as abundant as his accomplishments were varied, and the present writer hopes to take up the challenge in the near future.
He was the child of a family with a long tradition of religious scholarship. His ancestors, descendants of Imam Musa al-Kazim, the seventh Imam of the Ahl al-Bayt, had migrated towards the end hadirh the eighteenth century from their original home in Nishapur to the Lucknow region of northern India.
The most celebrated member of the family was Mir Hamid Kyomeini d. By the time of his death, the date of which is unknown, Sayyid Ahmad had fathered two children: The cause of the assassination is, however, difficult to establish with certainty. According to an account that became standard after the triumph hadit the Islamic Revolution, Sayyid Mustafa had aroused the anger of the local landowners because iamm his fodty of the impoverished peasantry. However, Sayyid Mustafa himself, in addition to the religious functions he fulfilled, was also a farmer of moderate prosperity, and it is possible that he fell victim to one of the disputes over irrigation rights that were common at the time.
Inthe Imam lost both his aunt, Sahiba, who had played a great role in his early upbringing, and his mother, Hajar. Responsibility for the family then devolved on the eldest brother, Sayyid Murtaza later to be known as Ayatullah Pasandida.
In addition to the incessant feuds among landowners, Khumayn was plagued by the raids mounted on the town by the Bakhtiyari and Lurr tribesmen whenever they had the chance. His first teacher in logic was Mirza Riza Najafi, his brother-in-law. This move was the first important turning point in his life. It was in Qum that he received all his advanced spiritual and intellectual training, and he was to retain a deep sense of identification with the city throughout the rest of his life.
It is possible, indeed, although not in a reductive sense, to describe him as a product of Qum. My heart is always with Qum and its people. He showed an exceptional interest in subjects that not only were usually absent from the madrasa curriculum, but were often an object of hostility and suspicion: When Shahabadi first came to Qum in Sh.
It is conceivable that the Imam derived from Shahabadi, at least in part, whether consciously or ihomeini, the fusion of gnostic and political concerns that came to characterize his life.
Gnosis and ethics were also the subject of the first classes taught by the Imam. The classes on ethics taught by Hajji Javad Aqa Maliki Tabrizi were resumed, three years after his death, by Shahabadi, and when Shahabadi left for Tehran in fortu, he assigned the class to Imam Khumayni. It proved popular to the extent that the townsfolk of Qum as well as the students of the religious sciences attended, and people are related to have come from as far a field as Tehran and Isfahan simply to listen to the Imam.
The government therefore secured the transfer of the khmeini from the prestigious location of the Fayziya madrasa to the Mullah Sadiq madrasa, which was unable to accommodate large crowds.
About The Author | Forty Hadith, An Exposition, Second Revised Edition |
However, after the deposition of Riza Shah inthe lectures returned to the Fayziya madrasa and instantly regained their former popularity. The ability to address the people at large, not simply his own colleagues within the religious institution, which the Imam displayed for the first time in these lectures on ethics, was to play an important role in the political struggles he led in later years.
As for the earliest writings of the Imam, they also indicate that his primary interest during his early years in Qum was gnosis. The sequence of these statements suggests that fiqh was as yet secondary among his concerns. This situation was to change, but gnosis was for the Imam never simply a topic for study, teaching, and writing.
It remained an integral part of his intellectual and spiritual personality, and as such infused many of his ostensibly political activities in later years with an unmistakably gnostic element.
In any event, as a still junior figure in the religious institution in Qum, he would have been in no position to mobilize popular opinion on a national scale. He expressed his own opinions of the Pahlavi regime, the leading characteristics of which he identified as oppression and hostility to religion, as yet only allusively, in privately circulated poems.
The same spirit of comprehensive revolt inspires the first work written by the Imam for publication, Kashf al-Asrar Tehran, Sh. He is said to have completed the book in forty-eight days from a sense of urgency, and that it indeed met a need is proven by the fact that it went through two impressions in its first year. Imam Khumayni connected their assaults on tradition with the anti-religious policies of Riza Shah and bitterly criticized the Pahlavi regime for destroying public morality.
A sense of lack was nonetheless felt. Ayatullah Burujirdi, then resident in Hamadan, was seen to be the most suitable person available, and Imam Khumayni is said to have played an important role in persuading him to come to Qum. In this he was no doubt motivated in part by the hope that Burujirdi would adopt a firm position vis-a-vis Muhammad Riza Shah, the second Pahlavi ruler.
This hope was to remain largely unfulfilled. In AprilImam Khumayni learned that Burujirdi was engaged in negotiations with the government concerning possible emendations to the constitution then in force, and he wrote him a letter expressing his anxieties about the possible consequences. His reluctance for direct political involvement in this period was probably due to his belief that any movement for radical change ought to be led by the senior echelons of the religious establishment.
In addition, the most influential personage on the crowded and confused political scene of the day was the secular nationalist, Dr. Inhe began teaching usul al- fiqh at the kharij level, taking as his text the chapter on rational proofs from the second volume of the Kifayat al-Usul of Akhund Muhammad Kazim Khurasani d. Initially attended by no more than thirty students, the class became so popular in Qum that five hundred were in attendance the third time it was offered.
According to the reminiscences of some of those who took the class, it was distinguished from other classes taught in Qum on the same subject by the critical spirit the Imam instilled in his students, as well as his ability to connect fiqh with all the other dimensions of Islam – ethical, gnostic, philosophical, political, and social.
This became apparent soon after the death of Burujirdi when Muhammad Riza Shah, secure in his possession of power after the CIA-organized coup of Augustembarked on a series of measures designed to eliminate all sources of opposition, actual or potential, and to incorporate Iran firmly into American patterns of strategic and economic domination. Fort all compromise measures, the Imam was able to force the repeal of the laws in question seven weeks after they had been promulgated.
This achievement marked his emergence on the scene as the principal voice of opposition to the Shah. A more serious confrontation was not long in coming. In Januarythe Shah announced a six-point program of reform that he termed omam White Revolution, an American-inspired package of measures designed to give his regime a liberal and progressive facade. They sent one of their number, Ayatullah Kamalvand, to see the Shah and gauge his intentions. Although the Shah showed no inclination to retreat or compromise, it took further pressure by Imam Khumayni on the other senior ulama of Qum to persuade them to decree a boycott of the referendum that the Shah had planned to obtain the appearance of popular approval for his White Revolution.
Khoneini his own part, Imam Khumayni issued on January 22, a strongly worded declaration denouncing the Shah and his plans. In imitation, perhaps, of his father, who had taken an armored column to Qum in in order to intimidate certain outspoken ulamathe Shah came to Qum two days later. Faced with a uadith by all the fotry of the city, he delivered a speech harshly attacking the ulama as a class. In it he listed the various ways in which the Shah had violated the constituent, condemned the spread of moral khomeeini in the country, and accused the Hxdith of comprehensive submission to America and Israel: The very next day, paratroopers were sent to the Fayziya madrasa in Qum, the site where the Imam delivered his public speeches.
They killed a number of students, beat and arrested a number of others, and ransacked the building.
Forty Hadith : Ayatullah Ruhulla Al-Musawi Al-Khomeini :
Unintimidated, the Imam continued his attacks on the regime. Confrontation turned to insurrection some two months later.
The beginning of Muharram, always a time of heightened religious awareness and sensitivity, saw demonstrators in Tehran carrying pictures of the Imam and denouncing the Shah in front of his own palace.
This warning was remarkably prescient, for on January 16, khoemini, the Shah was indeed obliged to leave Iran amidst scenes of popular rejoicing. As dawn broke on June 3, the news of his arrest spread first through Qum and then to other cities. In Qum, Tehran, Shiraz, Mashhad khomini Varamin, masses of angry demonstrators were confronted by tanks and ruthlessly slaughtered. It was not until six days later that order was fully restored. This uprising of 15 Khurdad the day in the Iranian calendar on which it began marked a turning point in Iranian history.
The movement of 15 Khurdad may therefore be characterized as the prelude to the Islamic Revolution of ; the goals of that revolution and its leadership had already been determined. Despite the killings that had taken place during the uprising, mass demonstrations were held in Tehran and elsewhere demanding his release and some of his colleagues came to the capital from Qum to lend their support to the demand.
It was not, however, until April 7, that foety was released, no doubt on the assumption that imprisonment had tempered his views and that the movement he had led would quietly subside. Aware of the persisting differences in approach between the Imam and some of the other senior religious scholars, the regime had also attempted to discredit him by creating dissension in Qum.
These attempts, too, were unsuccessful, for early in June all the major ulama put their signatures to declarations commemorating the first anniversary of the uprising of 15 Khurdad. In the autumn ofit concluded a status of forces agreement with the United States that provided immunity from prosecution for all American personnel in Iran and their dependents. This occasioned the Imam to deliver what was perhaps the most vehement speech of the entire struggle against the Shah; certainly one of his close associates, Ayatullah Muhammad Mufattih, had never seen him so agitated.
The decision to deport rather than arrest Imam Khumayni and imprison him in Iran was based khomwini doubt on the hope that in exile he would fade from popular memory. Physical elimination would have been fraught with the danger of an uncontrollable popular uprising.
The Imam was first lodged in room of Bulvar Palas Oteli in Ankara, a moderately comfortable hotel in the Turkish capital, under the joint surveillance of Iranian and Turkish security officials. On November 12, he was moved from Ankara to Bursa, where he was to reside another eleven months.
The stay in Turkey cannot have been congenial, for Turkish law forbade Imam Khumayni to wear the cloak and turban of the Muslim scholar, an identity which was integral to his being; the sole photographs in existence to show him bareheaded all belong to the period of exile in Turkey. Forgy, on December 3,he was joined in Bursa by his eldest son, Hajj Mustafa Khumayni; he was also permitted to receive occasional visitors from Iran, and was supplied with a number of books on fiqh.
He made khomeoni of his forced stay in Bursa to compile Tahrir al-Wasilaa two-volume compendium on questions of jurisprudence. It had moreover khlmeini functioned as a stronghold of ulama opposition to the Iranian monarchy during the Constitutional Revolution of But it was not in order to accommodate the Imam that the Shah arranged for his transfer to Najaf. He skirted this dual danger by proffering them his respect while continuing to pursue the goals he had set himself before leaving Iran.
The Imam declined the opportunity to be interviewed on Iraqi television soon after his arrival, and resolutely kept his distance from succeeding Iraqi administrations. His lectures were well attended, by students not only from Iran but also from Iraq, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the Persian Gulf states.
In fact, a mass migration to Najaf from Qum and other centers of religious learning in Iran was proposed to the Imam, but he advised against it as a measure bound to depopulate Qum and khommeini it as a center of religious guidance.
It was also gorty the Shaykh Murtaza Ansari madrasa that he delivered, between January 21 and February 8,his celebrated lectures on Wilayat al-faqih, the theory of governance that was to be implemented after the triumph of the Islamic Revolution. The text of these lectures was published in Najaf, not long after their delivery, under the title Wilayat al-faqih ya Hukumat-i Islami ; a slightly abbreviated Arabic translation soon followed.
This theory, which may be summarized as the assumption by suitably qualified ulama of the political and juridical functions of the Twelfth Imam during his occultation, had already been put forward, somewhat tentatively, in his first published work, Kashf al-Asrar. Finally, he delineated a program for the establishment of an Islamic government, laying particular stress on the responsibilities of the ulama to transcend their petty concerns and to address the people fearlessly: On the occasion of the Six Day War in Junethe Imam issued a declaration forbidding any type of dealing with Israel as well as the consumption of Israeli goods.
Some of the unpublished works of the Imam were lost or destroyed on this occasion. Some developments were met with fatwas rather than proclamations: Imam Khumayni had also to deal with changing circumstances in Iraq. Inas Iraq and Iran entered a state of sporadic and undeclared war with each other, the Iraqi regime began expelling from its territory Iranians whose forebears had in some cases been residing there for generations. The Imam, who until that point had scrupulously kept his distance from Iraqi officialdom, now addressed himself directly to the Iraqi leadership condemning its actions.
Imam Khumayni was, in fact, constantly, and acutely aware of the connections between Iranian affairs and those of the Muslim world in general and the Arab lands in particular. Khomeuni awareness led him to issue from Najaf a proclamation to the Muslims of the world on fortg occasion of the hajj inand to comment, with special frequency and emphasis, on the problems posed by Israel for the Muslim world.