Unlike other Kocuria species that are strictly aerobic, Kocuria kristinae is °C. The genus Micrococcus has been recently divided into Micrococcus, Kocuria. Kocuria is a genus of Gram positive bacteria in the phylum Actinobacteria, including the sequenced species Kocuria rhizophila. Kocuria has been identified in. Valid publication: STACKEBRANDT (E.), KOCH (C.), GVOZDIAK (O.) and SCHUMANN (P.): Taxonomic dissection of the genus Micrococcus: Kocuria gen. nov.

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Unfortunately, the skill required and high cost involved in molecular assays may limit their use in routine practice, and consequently, Kocuria species misidentification in many laboratories is likely to continue for some time.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek The possibility of biofilm formation on the catheter was attributed to treatment failure kocuira one of the cases, although it was not investigated.

Emerging Bacterial Infection: Identification and Clinical Significance of Kocuria Species

Improvement of the patient was visible after the initiation of antibiotic treatment, with fever subsiding and a decrease in the C-reactive protein level. In the era of drug resistance, and prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, occurrence of Kocuria spp in hospitalized patients should not always be gnus as contaminants. Two cases of peritonitis caused by Kocuria marina in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

Vitek 2 automated identification system and Kocuia kristinae. Introduction Kocuria are Gram-positive, coccoid actinobacteria that occur in tetrads belonging to the family Micrococcaceae, suborder Micrococcineae, order Actinomycetales [ 1 ].


A Smooth, small, moist, slightly convex, pale-pink colonies of Kocuria observed on sheep blood agar.

The lack of proper guidelines and breakpoints for Kocuria has forced many studies, including ours, to follow the susceptibility breakpoints used for Staphylococcus. Table 2 Misidentification of Kocuria species and members of the Kocuria genus by different automated phenotypic identification systems.

J Microbiol immunol infect. These are usually considered as non-pathogenic bacteria which are rarely associated with human infections. Kocuria pelophila Hamada et al. Kocuria sediminis Bala et al.

Gram’s stain of Kocuria spp showing large sized cocci arranged in pairs, short chains, tetrads, clusters and deeply stained very large cocci. Catheter-related bacteremia with pulmonary septic emboli.

Catheter-related bacteremia, gastric cancer.

Evolutionary relationships of taxa. These bacteria are responsible for different types of infection, mostly in immunocompromised hosts with serious underlying conditions. Complete genome sequence of the soil actinomycete Kocuria rhizophila.

The taxonomy from the rank of class and below is based upon currently published taxonomic opinion. Report of the ad hoc committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology.

Open in a separate window. Direct microscopy of the sample showed gram-positive cocci in pairs and clusters.

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Although not previously known to cause human infections, Kocuria species have now emerged as human pathogens, mostly in compromised hosts with severe underlying disease. Received Jul 23; Accepted Aug More troubling is the fact that such errors are likely to occur more frequently with the highly virulent strains of Staphylococcus that are known to show high PV.


Kocuria varians Migula Stackebrandt et al. Peritonitis due to Kocuria rosea in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis case Mikrobiyol Bul 43 — Phenotypic koduria may fail to recognize all the members of Kocuria species because the results of biochemical and carbon assimilation tests are shown to be heterogeneous in different species of Kocuria.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. A chest X-ray of the patient was normal, and an abdominal ultrasound showed findings suggestive of chronic renal failure. The second isolate obtained from the second peritoneal dialysate fluid taken after 3 days showed a colony morphology, growth characteristics, biochemical test results and antibiogram identical to that of first isolate.

These bacteria have been identified as Kocuria species with the help of automated identification system iocuria other molecular methods including 16S rRNA ribosomal ribonucleic acid evaluation.


A summary of the reports on the misidentification of Kocuria by phenotypic systems is given in Table 2. Indexed in Web of Science. Epidemiology, pathogenicity and emerging resistances in Staphylococcus pasteuri: