GWC COAL HANDBOOK PDF

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PEH:Estimation of Primary Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Condensate

It is important to realize, however, that although computer simulation is gsc used, these methods typically oversimplify representation of the spatial distribution of reservoir properties. The relative importance of the many pieces of geological and engineering data which should be evaluated when classifying reserves coxl be identified in advance.

The second term in the square brackets is used to calculate the adsorbed gas in the coal matrix. Other improved recovery methods may be developed in the future as petroleum technology continues to evolve.

Cronquist has provided additional guidelines regarding application of PVT correlations. Frequently, pumpers or lease foremen maintain records of well tests, pressures, and equipment changes in “daily gauge reports” that generally are not available elsewhere.

Petroleum in Basement Rocks. After discoveryreserves in such an accumulation might be estimated and classified using the procedures discussed here. The condensate REs are significantly different for all three reservoirs. Santa brought me some cylinder head protectors, rox risers, nippys deflectors, cowl and a tank bag. Reserves engineers might consider a probabilistic analysis of the data.

GWC Coal Handbook – Google Books

StressfestDec 26, The steeper ggwc, which might not appear until later in reservoir life, might be because of depletion of a limited aquifer. American Scientist 60 January—February: Both logs and core data can be used in defining the mapped interval.

Because of uncertainties in determining the flow characteristics of dual-porosity systems, estimates of reserves using volumetric methods are subject to substantial uncertainty.

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This reconciliation also should include results from computer simulation, as appropriate, but this is not specifically included in this discussion. Static methods typically are used before production is initiated in a subject reservoir, and include analogy methods and volumetric methods.

Coal Conversion Facts

Reserves estimates historically have been deterministic “single-valued”with the degree of uncertainty indicated by qualitative terms such as proved, probable, and possible.

The Practice of Reservoir Engineering, Vol. Probabilistic procedures recognize that uncertainties in input data and equations to calculate reserves may be significant.

Also, simulation programs can be used to forecast production. In that sense, they are two fundamentally different, independent methods for estimating reserves.

Unproved reserves are less certain to be recovered than proved reserves and may be further subclassified as probable and possible reserves to denote progressively increasing uncertainty regarding their recoverability. J Pet Technol 31 They represent interpretations and hamdbook followed by the U.

J Pet Technol 30 The initial dewatering period of approximately 1 year is characterized by diminishing water production and increasing gas production. These lithological interval “tops” may be used to better define structural influences that may control hydrocarbon trapping forces and depositional trends; however, the reserves geologist should prepare reservoir structure maps that describe the top and sometimes the base of the reservoir interval in the mapped formation.

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Thus, it is recommended that an evaluator compare reserves estimated by volumetric methods against well and reservoir performance at the earliest practical stage of production and make adjustments as warranted. In addition to monthly rates of oil and gas production, reservoir and surface pressure data and various fluid ratios can be analyzed and used in preparing reliable production forecasts.

J Pet Technol 17 3: See Cronquist [3] for a more in-depth discussion of this topic. The method of estimation is called deterministic [our emphasis] if a single best estimate of reserves is made based on known handboom, engineering, and economic data.

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In general, reserves are considered proved if the commercial producibility of the reservoir is supported by actual production or formation tests. Regression analysis, however, yields a “fit” through the “means” of the analyzed trend.

Reserves estimates based on performance also are subject to considerable uncertainty. Proved oil and gas reserves are the estimated quantities of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids which geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in future years from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions; i.

Reserves subcategorized as producing are expected to be recovered from completion intervals that are open and producing at the time of the estimate. As ocal by numerous authors, such equations should, in theory, be used only to fit the constant terminal pressure period of production—the semisteady-state period during which flowing BHP is maintained at a constant value; however, in practice, this operating condition is seldom maintained over long periods of time, which contributes to uncertainties in reserves estimation based on decline trend analysis.

If 3D seismic or other data are available to define or otherwise indicate an OWC, an alternate 2P interpretation based on this limit might be appropriate, as discussed on the section on reservoir limits. SPE Journal 11 3: Nonrepresentative pressures may occur when operators do not shut in certain wells because of high liquid ratios or other concerns.

Lacking such support, however, the projection should be confirmed through volumetric means before booking the forecast volumes as proved reserves. One should be alert to all circumstances in which reservoir extent may be limited by faulting, permeability changes, depositional discontinuities, or any other condition that might interrupt fluid flow.