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Limit states and the smooth backbone For multi-story and 3D specimens result parameters have been measured only for the critical first story and in loading direction.

References in periodicals archive? Furthermore, formation of more micro-cracks would improve the energy absorption characteristics, and thus, the seismic response. As is evident from the graphs, strength characteristics of this C M wall vary considerably depending on the utilized model. Distribution of some of the most important panel design variables 87 Figure A Longitudinal reinforcement diameter n: However, to mamposteris the empirical equations, this thesis focuses on the experimental results of typical C M walls whose behaviour is mainly governed by shear deformations.

Proposed equations adequately predict the model parameters at the cracking limit state that is believed to be independent of reinforcement detailing of the panel and confining elements. Case A o Formation of horizontal bending cracks at lower portions of the masonry wall zones of high negative moments would usually bring about the partial disintegration of wall and its supporting foundation.

Furthermore, the use of this type of masonry unit is not favourable in high seismic zones, due to inherent brittle behaviour that could be ascribed to their mamposteris rigidity Castilla and Marinilli, As experimental results suggest, the maximum point of the tri-linear backbone maximum point of the recorded response is reached when the principal diagonal cracks extend through tie confianda ends.

The iterative regression analysis was performed using the statistical software, Stata Stata press, Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry walls Chen, X. Mamposreria seismic models for confined masonry wall insight, general definitions and approaches in this appendix are supplemented conflnada some specific examples from the present study.

MReport No. Inability of the model to predict the deformation capacity of a CM wall with excessively large axial stress Aguilar et al, Both experimental and proposed response curves of Specimenas a representative of mmposteria class of C M walls that greatly deviate from the assumptions of confinadaa model, are shown in 67 Chapter 3: List of the data points that were entirely removed from the analysis vii Table B In addition, this parameter, in spite of its necessity for constructing the analytical backbone curve, is not of paramount importance from mampostreia performance-based design perspective.

Hollow masonry units, commonly used for reinforced masonry RM systems, are in practice also relied on for construction of C M walls.


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However, as Figure A-6 indicates, single-rebar tie columns comprise only a small portion of the database compared to tie columns with multiple rebar. Result parameters have been measured for both positive and negative directions, and then the averages added as indicators of the overall seismic performance. Summary and future research 77 4.

However, among these models, M88 was originally developed for R Mand as is illustrated in Figure a, greatly overestimates the shear cracking strength of C Mampostrria walls. The dependence of stiffness degradation on unit mmamposteria, as was noted in the calculation of Scr, also resulted in the inclusion of this variable in the development of the model.

Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry wall further limited by being developed only for “typical” C M walls. It is the goal of the current study to develop a model to predict the nonlinear backbone response of C M walls subjected to lateral loads. Lognormal distribution of SmcJ8uu 60 Figure In addition, in constructing their fragility curves, Astroza and Schemidt considered all the 52 data points in their database regardless of the reinforcement detailing of the wall, panel aspect ratio, and the 24 Chapter maposteria Literature review level of axial stress.

Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry wall Table Cont.

The results of analytical and experimental studies suggest that, in the event of severe earthquakes, heavily reinforced walls will either remain elastic, or will experience a msmposteria failure mode resulting from masonry crushing prior to yielding of horizontal reinforcement. Figure A-5 contrasts the percentage of these two types of columns in the database.

Literature review Efficacy of panel horizontal reinforcement is substantially influenced by two key factors; its amount and type. However, when panels are weakened by the presence of openings cracks form at the corners of openings and propagate towards the middle of the piers.

Glosario de Términos Técnicos

However, shear failure of C M walls, unlike their U R M counterparts is not highly brittle, and the contribution of confining elements improve both strength and deformation characteristics of the walls. However, since ceramic is generally more brittle than concrete, one may expect the gamma for ceramic to be lower. Its value in proportion to masonry compressive strength is the factor that affects the performance of C M walls.

As a result, these data points were excluded from the regression analysis.

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Figure illustrates the measured ductility factor as a function of vmax from Equation Recubrimientos de piedra sin labrar secos o junteados con mortero a base de cemento o de cal hidratada, construidos sobre superficies horizontales o inclinadas para protegerlas contra las erosiones.

Result parameters Table A Summary and future research opening confinement mampoosteria not consistent in seismic codes, it remains important to conduct experiments with varying opening characteristics.


Based on the thorough literature review, the following key factors have been identified as providing enhancements to the seismic performance of C M walls: The use of prefabricated ladder-shape reinforcement in bed joints, however, is not highly favoured due to its tendency to fracture at the welding points of cross-wires and longitudinal rebar Alcocer et al, Due to the lack of data for slender walls, Equation was also developed for panels with mamposterai ratios less than 1.

At this stage, as experimental results indicate, strain in tie-column longitudinal reinforcement changes alternately from 6 Chapter 2: Ability of the proposed equation and existing models to predict confinasa 49 Figure However, axial stress adversely affects the ultimate deformation capacity of C M walls, especially when its value is excessively mampostefia compared to masonry compressive strength.

Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry wall To be considered robust and indicative of the performance of C M walls with a broad range of design variables, accurate models should be calibrated to data points from extensive databases in a way that analytical predictions closely match experimental results. Most important I would like to thank my family for the unending love and wisdom you have given throughout my education.

The post-cracking role of tie columns in improving the shear capacity of C M walls has been overlooked by many of the forced-based equations. Furthermore, mortar penetration into the holes of these bricks also substantially affects the shear capacity of the panel, and mortar should therefore be provided with sufficient fluidity to fill the holes uniformly Alcocer and Zepeda, Furthermore, because confibada and cyclic tests were not separated maposteria the purpose of model development, due to the lack of data on the former category, it will also be desirable to conduct future experiments with monotonic loading protocol.

Post-cracking behaviour of typical C M walls, whose response is mainly governed by shear deformations, is directly influenced by friction, brick interlock, and shear resistance of tie column ends Flores and Alcocer, Although the stipulated code values vary slightly depending on the region they are developed for, almost all codes Confinaea 8, ; INN, ; N T C – M; NSR, call for the minimum transverse reinforcement of 6 mm hoops at to mm respectively.

Constructive effect of opening confinement on post-cracking seismic performance of CM walls Leonardo et al, Despite the fact that many codes call for horizontal and vertical confining elements at opening borders, it is sometimes not clear what size of openings should be provided with these tie columns and bond beams.