My guess is that the reported change in BMD in these girls was almost the actual change in bone mass, and that, had the authors used BMC as the. The positive correlation between hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and. Relationship between body mass index (BMI), weight, height, and BMD . The correlations between age and BMD and BMC indicators were. The average BMD & BMC in Saudi children is less than that of other races. . Pearson correlation & Coefficient of Variation % between BMD & BMC in different .
What are some of the Terminology associated with DEXA Scans?
Also, your Z-score is your bone density compared with what is normally expected in someone of the same age group. If your Z-score is -2 or lower, it may suggest a secondary cause of bone loss, something other than aging is causing bone loss.
Significant Change This value is calculated by multiplying the precision error by 2.
For a BMD change to be considered statistically significant, it must equal or exceed the calculated significant change. Cortical Bone Dense, hard bone with microscopic spaces. Cortical bone is typically found in long bones such as the femur, forearm, and tibia, and in the outer region of vertebrae. Trabecular Bone Porous bone composed of an intricate, latticed network of fibrous, calcified mineral. It is typically found at points of compression, such as lumbar vertebrae.
Bone, lean and fat mass. Low trauma fracture with minimal trauma i. This gold standard measurement instills the reality check to evaluate your true measured results.
What gets measured gets managed! This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Although several studies have investigated the association between body mass index BMI and bone mineral density BMDthe results are inconsistent. A total of men years old were examined.
Participants were categorised in two BMI group: These data indicate that both BMI and weight are associated with BMD of hip and vertebrae and overweight and obesity decreased the risk for osteoporosis.
The results of this study highlight the need for osteoporosis prevention strategies in elderly men as well as postmenopausal women. Introduction Obesity and osteoporosis are two important and growing public health problems worldwide [ 1 — 3 ], and osteoporotic fractures are among the main concerns of elderly population.
Low bone mineral density BMD is a major risk factor for osteoporosis and its related fractures [ 3 ]. Body weight or BMI has been found to be inversely related to the risk of osteoporotic fracture [ 37 ]. BMD appears to be reduced in lean postmenopausal women in most [ 8 — 18 ] but not all studies [ 419 — 22 ]; in some studies BMD was reduced [ 4202324 ], whereas in other studies BMD was increased [ 8 — 1522 ].
Thus, the role of obesity as a risk factor for low BMD, osteoporosis, and its related fractures remains unsettled. While there have been abundant epidemiological studies in postmenopausal women, few studies have examined the relationship between BMI, weight, and BMD in men and no study has been undertaken in Iranian men.
Different associations may be expected in men who have a different lifestyle, such as different levels of activity and different eating habits.
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However, from clinical and public health point of view, it is important to clarify the role of BMI and weight in association with BMD.
Subjects and Methods 2. Subjects This is a cross-sectional study comprised of consecutive not institutionalised men who were referred to Isfahan Osteoporosis Diagnosis and Body Composition Center for DXA scan from May to Novemberwith a mean standard deviation SD age of All men were in good health according to clinical medical evaluations. Men who reported chronic medical conditions or were using medications affecting bone metabolism or had family history of osteoporosis and smokers were excluded.
Tenets of the current version of Declaration of Helsinki were followed, institutional ethical committee approval was granted, and an informed consent form was signed by each participant.
Anthropometric Measurement With the subjects in light clothes and without shoes, height and weight were measured using standard apparatus while performing bone densitometry measurements. Weight was measured to the nearest 0. Height was measured to the nearest 0. We calculated BMI as the ratio of weight kg to height squared m2. BMDs of the lumbar vertebrae L2—L4 and the hip region total hip, femoral neck, trochanter, and femoral shaft were measured according to protocols.
The scanner was calibrated daily against the standard calibration block supplied by the manufacturer to control for possible baseline drift. T-Score and Z-Score were also obtained. All the data were collected according to the recommendations of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry [ 27 ].
Analysis Statistical methods used included the Pearson's correlation; chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, multiple linear regression, and binary logistic regression. Pearson's correlation was used to measure the correlation between continuous variables.
Variable age was entered in models as continuous variable while BMI was categorical. When multiple linear regression analysis was used, BMDs and BMCs in the lumbar vertebrae, total hip, femoral neck, femoral shaft, and trochanter were dependent variables, whereas age, BMI, and weight were independent variables.
Age-adjusted means were also calculated and compared using general linear models. All anthropometric or DXA measures were not included simultaneously in regression analysis to avoid colinearity that these independent variables may have. Subject Characteristics Characteristics of the 95 No significant difference was observed for height. The mean SD age was A total of 96 The means and standard deviations of anthropometric and densitometric measures by age decade and BMI class are shown in Table 2.
A significant decrease in femoral neck with age was observed in both groups. A significant decrease in total hip and femoral shaft BMD with age was observed only in overweight and obese men and when all BMI groups were considered.