Battle of the Allia - Wikipedia
The Celts did pose a threat to Rome well before the Empire, however. The Cisalpine Gauls defeated and sacked Rome during the earlier years of the Republic. Information about the Gallic invasion and Gallic sack of Rome. lived and the Romans and Celts would maintain an adversarial relationship for the next several. The Battle of the Allia was fought between the Senones and the Roman Republic . It was fought at the confluence of the rivers Tiber and Allia, eleven Roman miles (16 km) north of Rome. The Romans were routed and subsequently the Senones sacked Rome. They told the Gauls not to attack Clusium and that if they did, the Romans.
The Gallic tribes were united only by blood and origin and each maintained their own kings or warlords. Some of these tribes settled into cattle and cereal farming along with peaceful cohabitation, but others maintained aggressive policies towards their new neighbors. One such tribe, the Senones, was under the command of a Brennus, who led his Celts to the Etruscan city of Clusium about miles north of Rome. It is important to note that much of the ancient source material, such as Livy, Polybius and Diodorus Siculus, is steeped in legend or, especially on the part of Livy, biased though nationalism.
Whether Clusium was the target, or it simply stood in the path on the way to the more powerful city of Rome, is unclear.
It is clear, however, that the Celts did approach and lay siege to Clusium and that the Etruscans there likely set aside any differences and called to Rome for help.
In response, according to the ancients, the Romans sent a delegation of 3 envoys to treat with Brennus. Siculus claims that the 3 were really spies sent to assess the strength of the Celts, but it is apparent that whatever the reason for the meeting, it escalated into violence. After exchanged insults, the Roman envoys were involved in a skirmish with the Gauls, in which one Celtic chief tan was killed. The commissioners returned to Rome without relief for Clusium and with an angry Gallic army behind them.
Brennus sent his own representatives to Rome to demand the 3 men be turned over to him, but was predictably refused.
Later that year, the angered Gauls left Clusium behind and headed for Rome to seek revenge. The advancing Gauls invaded Roman territory and threatened the security of Rome herself. Eleven miles to the north of Rome, an outnumbered Roman army mustered under the command of A. Quintus Sulpicius, met them in July, BC the traditional date is recorded as BC but the Varronian chronology is erroneousand suffered a crushing defeat on the banks of the River Allia. As all appeared lost, some Roman defenders retreated to the Capitoline Hill to endure a siege, while civilians fled through the city gates to the city of Veii and the surrounding countryside.
The Gauls poured into Rome slaughtering civilians while looting and burning everything in their path. At some point they apparently attempted an uphill attack on the heavily fortified capital, but were repulsed and never able to dislodge the occupants.
For seven months the Gauls remained and wreaked havoc around Rome. In the second Gaulish invasion of Greece BCthe Gauls, led by Brennossuffered heavy losses while facing the Greek coalition army at Thermopylaebut helped by the Heracleans they followed the mountain path around Thermopylae to encircle the Greek army in the same way that the Persian army had done at the Battle of Thermopylae in BC, but this time deafeating the whole of the Greek army.
This led to a series of retreats of the Gauls, with devastating losses, all the way up to Macedonia and then out of the Greek mainland. The major part of the Gaul army was defeated in the process, and those Gauls survived were forced to flee from Greece. The Gallic leader Brennos was seriously injured at Delphi and committed suicide there.
He is not to be confused with another Gaulish leader bearing the same name who had sacked Rome a century earlier BC. They numbered about 10, fighting men and about the same number of women and children, divided into three tribes, TrocmiTolistobogii and Tectosages.
They were eventually defeated by the Seleucid king Antiochus I BCin a battle in which the Seleucid war elephants shocked the Galatians. Although the momentum of the invasion was broken, the Galatians were by no means exterminated, and continued to demand tribute from the Hellenistic states of Anatolia to avoid war.
After this defeat, the Galatians continued to be a serious threat to the states of Asia Minor. Galatia declined and at times fell under Pontic ascendancy.
Gallic Sack of Rome | zolyblog.info
They were finally freed by the Mithridatic Warsin which they supported Rome. In the settlement of 64 BC, Galatia became a client state of the Roman empire, the old constitution disappeared, and three chiefs wrongly styled "tetrarchs" were appointed, one for each tribe.
But this arrangement soon gave way before the ambition of one of these tetrarchs, Deiotarusa contemporary of Cicero and Julius Caesarwho made himself master of the other two tetrarchies and was finally recognized by the Romans as 'king' of Galatia. The Galatian language continued to be spoken in central Anatolia until the 6th century. They played a part in some of his most spectacular victories, including the battle of Cannae. The Gauls were so prosperous by the 2nd century that the powerful Greek colony of Massilia had to appeal to the Roman Republic for defense against them.
The Romans intervened in southern Gaul in BC, and conquered the area eventually known as Gallia Narbonensis by He noted that the Gauls Celtae were one of the three primary peoples in the area, along with the Aquitanians and the Belgae.
HISTORY OF THE CELTS
Caesar's motivation for the invasion seems to have been his need for gold to pay off his debts and for a successful military expedition to boost his political career.
The people of Gaul could provide him with both. While they were militarily just as brave as the Romans, the internal division between the Gallic tribes guaranteed an easy victory for Caesar, and Vercingetorix 's attempt to unite the Gauls against Roman invasion came too late.
After more than a century of warfarethe Cisalpine Gauls were subdued by the Romans in the early 2nd century BC. The Transalpine Gauls continued to thrive for another century, and joined the Germanic Cimbri and Teutones in the Cimbrian Warwhere they defeated and killed a Roman consul at Burdigala in BC, and later became prominent among the rebelling gladiators in the Third Servile War.
During the Roman period the Gauls became assimilated into Gallo-Roman culture and by expanding Germanic tribes. During the crisis of the third centurythere was briefly a breakaway Gallic Empire founded by the Batavian general Postumus.
Battle of the Allia
Physical appearance[ edit ] The fourth-century Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus wrote that the Gauls were tall, light-skinned, light-haired, and light-eyed: Almost all Gauls are tall and fair-skinned, with reddish hair. Their savage eyes make them fearful objects; they are eager to quarrel and excessively truculent. When, in the course of a dispute, any of them calls in his wife, a creature with gleaming eyes much stronger than her husband, they are more than a match for a whole group of foreigners; especially when the woman, with swollen neck and gnashing teeth, swings her great white arms and begins to deliver a rain of punches mixed with kicks, like missiles launched by the twisted strings of a catapult.
The Gauls are tall of body, with rippling muscles, and white of skin, and their hair is blond, and not only naturally so, but they make it their practice to increase the distinguishing color by which nature has given it. For they are always washing their hair in limewater, and they pull it back from their forehead to the top of the head and back to the nape of the neck Some of them shave their beards, but others let it grow a little; and the nobles shave their cheeks, but they let the mustache grow until it covers the mouth.
He speculates based on this comparison that the Britons originated from different peoples, including the aforementioned Gauls and Spaniards.
The Silures have swarthy features and are usually born with curly black hair, but the inhabitants of Caledonia have reddish hair and large loose-jointed bodies.