Relationship between environmental conditions and enzyme function

Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity (Introduction to Enzymes)

Whether you're taking your first biology class or are a seasoned veteran of enzyme studies, the environmental factors that can impact the ability of enzymes to. Cells were grown in a chemostat under hemin-excess conditions over a range of pH values; stable growth was observed only between pH and , with the. Knowledge of basic enzyme kinetic theory is important in enzyme analysis in order both to understand the basic enzymatic mechanism and to select a method .

Raising temperature generally speeds up a reaction, and lowering temperature slows down a reaction. However, extreme high temperatures can cause an enzyme to lose its shape denature and stop working. Each enzyme has an optimum pH range. Changing the pH outside of this range will slow enzyme activity.

Factors affecting Enzyme Activity

Extreme pH values can cause enzymes to denature. Increasing enzyme concentration will speed up the reaction, as long as there is substrate available to bind to. Once all of the substrate is bound, the reaction will no longer speed up, since there will be nothing for additional enzymes to bind to. Increasing substrate concentration also increases the rate of reaction to a certain point. Once all of the enzymes have bound, any substrate increase will have no effect on the rate of reaction, as the available enzymes will be saturated and working at their maximum rate.

Common mistakes and misconceptions Enzymes are "specific. Some enzymes are more specific than others and will only accept one particular substrate.

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Other enzymes can act on a range of molecules, as long as they contain the type of bond or chemical group that the enzyme targets. A substrate entering the active site of the enzyme. This interference causes a change in shape of the enzyme, and importantly, its Active Site. Different enzymes have different Optimum pH values.

At the Optimum pH, the rate of reaction is at an optimum.

Factors affecting Enzyme Activity | A Level Notes

Any change in pH above or below the Optimum will quickly cause a decrease in the rate of reaction, since more of the enzyme molecules will have Active Sites whose shapes are not or at least are less Complementary to the shape of their Substrate. However, extreme changes in pH can cause enzymes to Denature and permanently lose their function. Enzymes in different locations have different Optimum pH values since their environmental conditions may be different.

For example, the enzyme Pepsin functions best at around pH2 and is found in the stomach, which contains Hydrochloric Acid pH2. Concentration Changing the Enzyme and Substrate concentrations affect the rate of reaction of an enzyme-catalysed reaction. Controlling these factors in a cell is one way that an organism regulates its enzyme activity and so its Metabolism.

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Changing the concentration of a substance only affects the rate of reaction if it is the limiting factor: If it is the limiting factor, increasing concentration will increase the rate of reaction up to a point, after which any increase will not affect the rate of reaction.

This is because it will no longer be the limiting factor and another factor will be limiting the maximum rate of reaction. As a reaction proceeds, the rate of reaction will decrease, since the Substrate will get used up. The highest rate of reaction, known as the Initial Reaction Rate is the maximum reaction rate for an enzyme in an experimental situation.

Substrate Concentration Increasing Substrate Concentration increases the rate of reaction. This is because more substrate molecules will be colliding with enzyme molecules, so more product will be formed. However, after a certain concentration, any increase will have no effect on the rate of reaction, since Substrate Concentration will no longer be the limiting factor.

The enzymes will effectively become saturated, and will be working at their maximum possible rate.