DAIMYO, SHOGUNS AND THE BAKUFU (SHOGUNATE) | Facts and Details
emperor imperial precinct bakufu fudai shogun of edo tokugawa government battle of sekigchara fuedal military dictatorship tozama lords hatamoto koku han. The Samurai played an important part in the history of Japanthey protected people who didn't know how to protect themselves, helped sort out disputes, they . As servants of the daimyos, or great lords, the samurai backed up the authority of the shogun and gave him power over the mikado (emperor). The samurai.
This relatively conservative faith, with its emphasis on loyalty and duty, eclipsed Buddhism during the Tokugawa period as the dominant religion of the samurai.5 Japanese Clans That Still Exist Today
It was during this period that the principles of bushido emerged as a general code of conduct for Japanese people in general. Though bushido varied under the influences of Buddhist and Confucian thought, its warrior spirit remained constant, including an emphasis on military skills and fearlessness in the face of an enemy. In a peaceful Japan, many samurai were forced to become bureaucrats or take up some type of trade, even as they preserved their conception of themselves as fighting men.
Inthe right to carry swords was restricted only to samurai, which created an even greater separation between them and the farmer-peasant class. The material well-being of many samurai actually declined during the Tokugawa Shogunate, however. Samurai had traditionally made their living on a fixed stipend from landowners; as these stipends declined, many lower-level samurai were frustrated by their inability to improve their situation.
Samurai and Bushido
The incursion of Western powers into Japan—and especially the arrival in of Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.
Navy, on a mission to get Japan to open its doors to international trade—proved to be the final straw. The controversial decision to open the country to Western commerce and investment helped encourage resistance to the shogunate among conservative forces in Japan, including many samurai, who began calling for a restoration of the power of the emperor.
Daimyo | Japanese social class | zolyblog.info
Feudalism was officially abolished in ; five years later, the wearing of swords was forbidden to anyone except members of the national armed forces, and all samurai stipends were converted into government bonds, often at significant financial loss. The new Japanese national army quashed several samurai rebellions during the s, while some disgruntled samurai joined secret, ultra-nationalist societies, among them the notorious Black Dragon Society, whose object was to incite trouble in China so that the Japanese army would have an excuse to invade and preserve order.
Ironically—given the loss of their privileged status—the Meiji Restoration was actually engineered by members of the samurai class itself. Three of the most influential leaders of the new Japan—Inoue Kaoru, Ito Hirobumi and Yamagata Aritomo—had studied with the famous samurai Yoshida Shouin, who was executed after a failed attempt to kill a Tokugawa official in It was former samurai who put Japan on the road to what it would become, and many would become leaders in all areas of modern Japanese society.
In the 14th and 15th centuries the so-called shugo daimyo arose.
These daimyo were appointed as military governors shugo under the Ashikaga shoguns hereditary military dictatorsand they held legal jurisdiction over areas as large as provinces. In the second half of the 15th century the shugo daimyo were supplanted by the Sengoku daimyo i. By the late 15th century the Sengoku daimyo had divided Japan into a series of small, belligerent states as each individual daimyo competed for the control of more territory.
The Sengoku daimyo built castles in the hill country from which they controlled their vassals, who likewise were petty landowners with castles.
Samurai and Bushido - HISTORY
In the 16th century the Sengoku daimyo fought among themselves constantly, and a process of consolidation ensued, with fewer and fewer daimyo emerging from the local wars and each holding more and more territory.
In Oda Nobunaga began the movement of decisive military conquest over the daimyo that was later carried on by Toyotomi Hideyoshi and completed in by Tokugawa Ieyasu. By this time roughly daimyo had been brought under the hegemony of the Tokugawa family, the head of which served as shogun. Daimyo were joined to the shogun by oath and received their lands as grants under his vermilion seal in a governing system called the bakuhan.
The daimyo divided his domain between his own personal granary land and the land on which his chief retainers were enfeoffed. Normally his granary land amounted to from 30 to 40 percent of the whole.