3) Graph numbers of meanders vs. gradients to discover relationship . graph ( x-y scatter graph) of the relationship between sinuosity of a river and its gradient.  The relation between equilibrium stream channel morphology and three independent governing . A stream may follow paths of varying sinuosity and length to achieve the .. Since the sediment trap used a mm mesh screen, both distributions . sediment supply were varied at constant valley gradient, seven of. Students determine the relationship between the sinuosity of a river and its gradient by calculating gradients and sinuosity, and generating a.
Introduction The physical form of a stream channel is the result of the coupled climatic, biotic, and hydrogeomorphic processes acting upon it [ 123 ]. Accordingly, the classification of rivers into reach types based on their physical characteristics lends insight into both the formative processes that shape rivers, and the diversity of rivers that occur across an area of interest [ 34 ].
How does meandering affect gradient?
There are numerous frameworks for classifying streams, many of which have diverse spatial and temporal output scales see [ 567 ]. Classification applications range from river maintenance to flood control to channel and riparian protection from land use [ 8 ], and more broadly help to disentangle natural and anthropogenic influences on channels, determine current channel condition, and forecast response to future disturbance [ 3 ].
Over the past two decades, there has been intense debate and criticism of the utility of particular frameworks [ 910111213 ], largely in the context of river management and restoration. These criticisms range from the limitations of a given framework at some spatial and temporal scales, to criticisms of the decisions that can arise when a framework is misapplied, to the fact that most frameworks lack measurements of process rates e. That is, measurements of river form are direct reflections of the processes acting to shape that form [ 121617 ].Relaxing Rain & Soothing River Sounds Near a Beautiful Waterfall in the Rocky Mountains - 10 Hours
Indeed, nearly all classification frameworks use metrics that describe the capacity of a channel to perform geomorphic work and adjust laterally within a valley bottom. For example, many classifications include measures of channel gradient, valley setting or entrenchment, and sediment characteristics [ 6181920 ]. The fundamental basis of geomorphology is concerned both with landforms and the processes that shape them.
While the focus on quantifying process has helped geomorphology mature beyond its observational and empirical roots [ 21 ], the notion that the study of form, or inference about process from form, is inherently flawed is short-sighted. This over-simplification implies that form and process are at best, distinct, and at worst, mutually exclusive. In reality, the line between form and process is blurred, as river form and hydrogeomorphic processes are directly related.
Stream Characteristics Lab
In a long history of disagreement between proponents and detractors of particular classification frameworks, and over the relative utility of form- versus process-based classification in general, it is of note that direct comparisons of frameworks are exceedingly rare [ 11222324 ]. This may be due to the inherent difficulty in comparing methodologies that produce results at different spatial scales and which seek to describe past or present river condition.
These methodologies also often require disparate types and amounts of input data and varying degrees of geomorphic expertise to complete. Nevertheless, the geomorphic community would benefit from a more clear understanding of the degree to which various river classifications, which differ in whether or how they include or infer process from form, reach similar or disparate conclusions with regard to their output [ 3 ].
The last part of the exercise involves looking at the Mexican Hat.
How does meandering affect gradient? | Yahoo Answers
From Google Earth they can see that the San Juan River has many meanders this is an area of the San Juan River known as the Goosenecksbut it is very steep rapids can be seen. They must try to explain why it doesn't fit the relationship established by the graph. If students have never used Google Earth, you will need to demonstrate its use and give students plenty of time to play with it, for they will insist upon finding their houses. This exercise assumes that students have had experience creating graphs with Excel, but have not had experience inserting formulas into Excel, and so the instructions may need modification depending upon the spreadsheet expertise of the students.
See references below for some links to Excel tutorials. A note on Part 5 in Description above: The last question about the Grand Canyon is likely to stump students who have not been introduced to the idea of rejuvenated streams.
That is not necessarily a bad thing, for it provides a nice opportunity to initiate a discussion about landscape uplift and stream rejuvenation. Assessment The lab handout with the completed spreadsheet will be graded. References and Resources Google Earth homepage - download the latest version of Google Earth, get more information, add free stuff to your copy of Google Earth.