How are the terms gene, locus, and allele related? | Socratic
An allele is a variant form of a gene. Some genes have a variety of different forms , which are located at the same position, or genetic locus, on a chromosome. Of course, as the biology of genomics has become clearer over the last few decades, the connection between the theoretical terms 'gene' and 'loci', as they were. The short answer is that an allele is a variant form of a gene. Explained in greater detail, each gene resides at a specific locus (location on a chromosome) in two.
Maybe, maybe this stretch, let me do it in different color. Maybe it codes, it codes for a protein that's used-- Maybe it's a protein that helps regulate DNA replication. Maybe over here is another we encode for another protein that maybe, maybe it in some ways affects, affects the pigmentation of your skin, or the pigmentation of your eyes, and so you these stretches of DNA that code for specific things.
And actually it doesn't have to just be even for a protein. That gets processed so you could actually lose some sections of it, but you go to messenger RNA and then that messenger RNA, every three of these base pairs is a Codon. Let me, so let's say that's one codon.
What’s the Difference Between a Gene and an Allele? | zolyblog.info
One, two, three, that's another codon. One, two, three, each of those-- Maybe I'll draw them next to each other. Each of of them codes for an amino acid that is kind of connected together to form, connected together to form a protein.
So that's one amino acid right over there. This could be another amino acid right over there. We can keep going on and on and on and on.
Alleles definition & allele vs gene comparison (video) | Khan Academy
You could have another Amino Acid right over here, and then they all bond to each other and they're brought actually to the mRNA from a, by a functional RNA group. And so there are functional things other than proteins that this could code for. So you can have tRNA and we've seen this before in previous videos. It's this little squiggly line, matches up the the appropriate Codon, and then puts that Amino Acid in place.
So RNA doesn't have to only play this kind of in between messenger function. It actually can play a functional or a structural role.
What’s the Difference Between a Gene and an Allele?
In fact there are theories that the earliest life, the most primitive life was nothing but self replicating RNA and then the systems became more, and more, and more complicated and complex until eventually you end up with things like redwood trees and hippopotami. Elephants, but whatever else, but it all started with potentially self replicating RNA. Some people say it might be some type of proteins are able to replicate, who knows, but RNA is definitely, is definitely an interesting character in this.
So each of these Genes they can code for a type of protein or even a functional RNA. That's what a Gene is. Now what about an Allele?
- Alleles and genes
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- Locus (genetics)
When the Allele is a specific variation of the Gene. So for example, let's say that you look at the at the same stretch of DNA.
We're both human beings and we have for the most part very similar DNA. So this is-- Actually let me straighten it out. Now we're both human beings and most of our genetic material is fairly similar, but we might have variations in how this Gene is coded.
For example, you might have or I might have a let's say, I have a an Adenine right there, but right at that exact spot you might have a different base. You might have a, I don't know, you might have a, you might have-- Actually let me just-- You might have a Thymine right over there.
So it's encoding for a protein, or you know, functional RNA that's playing the same role. Maybe it has a role in the immune system or role in your skin color or role in how your brain develops, but there's a variation.
A gene is a sequence of nucleotides along a DNA strand - with 'start' and 'stop' codons and other regulatory elements - that specifies a sequence of amino acids that are linked together to form a protein. There are a two points to note about the genetic code: All life on Earth uses the same code with a few minor exceptions.
Each amino acid can be coded for by more than one codon. A codon table sets out how the triplet codons code for specific amino acids.
DNA replication The enzyme helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the two strands together, and both strands can then act as templates for the production of the opposite strand. The process is catalysed by the enzyme DNA polymerase, and includes a proofreading mechanism. Genes The gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity.
It consists of a specific sequence of nucleotides at a given position on a given chromosome that codes for a specific protein or, in some cases, an RNA molecule. Genes consist of three types of nucleotide sequence: These genes are known, collectively, as the human genome. Chromosomes Eukaryotic chromosomes The label eukaryote is taken from the Greek for 'true nucleus', and eukaryotes all organisms except viruses, Eubacteria and Archaea are defined by the possession of a nucleus and other membrane-bound cell organelles.
The nucleus of each cell in our bodies contains approximately 1.
How are the terms gene, locus, and allele related?
This DNA is tightly packed into structures called chromosomes, which consist of long chains of DNA and associated proteins. In eukaryotes, DNA molecules are tightly wound around proteins - called histone proteins - which provide structural support and play a role in controlling the activities of the genes. A strand to nucleotides long is wrapped twice around a core of eight histone proteins to form a structure called a nucleosome.
The chains of histones are coiled in turn to form a solenoid, which is stabilised by the histone H1. Further coiling of the solenoids forms the structure of the chromosome proper. Each chromosome has a p arm and a q arm. The p arm from the French word 'petit', meaning small is the short arm, and the q arm the next letter in the alphabet is the long arm.
In their replicated form, each chromosome consists of two chromatids. Chromosome unraveling to show the base pairings of the DNA The chromosomes - and the DNA they contain - are copied as part of the cell cycle, and passed to daughter cells through the processes of mitosis and meiosis.
Read more about the cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis Human beings have 46 chromosomes, consisting of 22 pairs of autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes: