excerpts addressing dual relationships and multiple relationships from the Study of Psychologists, Psychiatrists, and Social Workers"; "Dual Relationships: Trends, Examples include counseling plus personal, fraternal, business, financial, . of professional relationship (e.g., long-term psychotherapy vs. organizational. The opening example of this chapter illustrates such multiple roles. A related dual relationship that military psychologists face is their dual role as clinician and One must take into account that the majority of military organizations combine all .. Manufacturing victims: What the psychology industry is doing to people. Multiple or dual relationships occur when a psychologist functions in a Examples of personal roles outside of a service setting include friendships, social his or her services to a community organization rather than to the psychologist. . of state efforts to manage the hazards of industrial production and an extension of.
Dual Relationships, Multiple Relationships, & Boundaries
The three general principles noted may constitute the critical distinguishing factors in subsequent challenges between a crossing and a violation. All revolve around a basic question: What elements of our private world will we express to the outer world?
Most often, disclosures involve negotiating an appropriate balance between the helpfulness of sharing a part of ourselves with another and the inappropriateness of even danger of overdoing it, of perhaps sharing too much too soon. Psychotherapy, a place of nearly total confidentiality, provides a rich and unique settings in which to examine this quintessentially human conflict. In doing so, in studying the nature and consequences of disclosure, we can enrich our understanding of interpersonal relations in general and of something fundamental about the psychotherapeutic process.
Fantasy and Reality" in Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, August,p.
A pilot comparison study of two disciplines" in American Journal of Family Therapy,vol. We again acknowledge the impossibility of setting firm boundaries appropriate for every consumer under every circumstance.
Industrial/Organizational Undergraduates: Do They Really Need To Know About Ethics?
We are concerned, however, that inappropriate crossings are often rationalized as benevolent or therapeutic. As Brown states, 'In the many cases in which I have testified as an expert witness regarding abuses in psychotherapy and the standards of care, it is a very common experience for me to hear the accused therapist pleading the cause of greater humanity, and even love, as the rationale for having had sex with, breast fed, slow-danced with, gone into business with, move in with, and so on with the complaining client'p.
You may have heard in workshops or read in books or journals that hugging a client, giving a gift to a client, or meeting a client outside of the office constitutes a multiple relationship and is prohibited by our ethics code or by the standard of care sustained by professional licensing boards.
You may also have heard or read that telling a client something personal about yourself or unexpectedly encountering a client at a social event are examples of unprofessional multiple relationships.
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The inaccuracies, or errors, in our thinking about nonsexual multiple relationships, mire us in confusion and controversy. The errors cripple our movement towards a comprehensive and practical model of ethical decision-making regarding multiple relationships with clients.
This study also showed that male therapists are more likely to engage in nonsexual dual relationships with clients of the opposite sex than their female counterparts. A Practical Guide, 4th EditionWiley, Clarity in thinking through boundary issues for each client is essential. Reflexively applying a rigid set of rules A central theme of this book is that we cannot shift responsibility to a set of rules Every client is unique in some ways, as is every therapist.
Each situation is unique in some ways, and situations continue to change. Nothing can spare us the personal responsibility of making the best effort we can to assess the potential effects of boundary crossings Decisions about boundaries must be made with the greatest possible clarity about the potential benefits and harm, the client's needs and well-being, informed consent and informed refusal, and the therapist's knowledge and competence.The Basics of Industrial/Organizational Psychology and Research
What about multiple social roles? Is it helpful, hurtful, or completely irrelevant for a therapist to provide therapy to a close friend, spouse, or step-child? Are there any potential benefits or risks to social outings with a client meeting for dinner, going to a movie, playing golf, or heading off for a weekend of sightseeingso long as there is no sexual or romantic involvement?
What about lending a client money to help pay the rent or buy food and medications? Under what circumstances should a therapist accept bartered services or products as payment for therapy sessions? The 15 years or so from the early s to the mids saw these and other questions about multiple relationships and boundaries discussed—and often argued—from virtually every point of view, every discipline, and every theoretical orientation. On Seeing Acquaintances as Patients.
Similarly, in the edition of their widely used textbook Ethics in Psychology: Professional Standards and Cases, Patricia Keith-Spiegel and Gerald Koocher discussed ways in which boundary crossings may be unavoidable in good clinical practice and presented ways to think through the ethical implications of specific dual relationships or other boundary issues. Patrusksa Clarkson, who wrote 'In Recognition of Dual Relationships,' discussed the 'mythical, single relationship' and wrote that 'it is impossible for most psychotherapists to avoid all situations in which conflicting interests or multiple roles might exist'p.
Vincent Rinella and Alvin Gerstein argued that 'the underlying moral and ethical rationale for prohibiting dual relationships DRs is no longer tenable'p. Jeanne Adleman and Susan Barrett took a fresh and creative look, from a feminist perspective, at how to make careful decisions about dual relationships and boundary issues.
Laura Brown ; see also b examined the implications of boundary decisions from another perspective in 'Beyond Thou Shalt Not: Thinking about Ethics in the Lesbian Therapy Community. Elisabeth Horst and Amy Stockman were among those who explored issues of dual relationships and boundaries in rural settings. Melanie Geyer examined some of the decision-making principles that had evolved for evaluating multiple relationships and boundary issues in rural settings and adapted them for some of the unique challenges faced by Christian counselors and counselors for whom other religious faiths are a focus of practice.
The care with which these diverse articles and books in the s and first half of the s examined a diverse array of contextual issues such as the nature of the community e. They can also undermine the therapy, disrupt the therapist-patient alliance, and cause harm to clients. Building on Gutheil and Gabbard's conceptualization of boundary crossings and boundary violations, this article discusses and illustrates grounding boundary decisions in a sound approach to ethics.
As with any area of life, psychologists strive to uphold integrity in their professional interactions. Obviously, one should not lie, cheat, or steal when working with an organization. However, this principle goes well beyond those basics. Professional psychologists should be careful when explaining concepts and interventions so as to avoid any misrepresentation of facts.
Deception in applied situations may be justified if the psychologist is collecting data for an IRB-approved project.
However, debriefing of employees is important for any deception situations. If an intervention requires expertise that the consulting psychologists believes is outside of their training, they should recommend another expert. Respect for rights and dignity. The professional in question is bound to keep such information confidential, as it could harm the relationships between employee and employer, or possibly lead to a termination.
Also management or the practicing psychologist must not coerce employees to participate in data collection. In addition, we explain the purpose and content of the Principles and how it relates to students in the field. Resolving ethical issues e. Imagine a scenario where a supervisor asks the psychologist to submit the job satisfaction information collected from his or her employees.
Dual Relationships, Multiple Relationships, & Boundary Decisions
The psychologist is in an ethical dilemma. Because students are not as familiar with procedures of organizations as professionals are, the boundaries of what is ethical or unethical can be less clear. For example, if the student is conducting research in an organization where informed consent is not being obtained from participants prior to data collection, the student may think this is unethical and feel uncomfortable collecting the data. It would be common for the student to be hesitant to approach a psychologist who has more experience than they do with this issue.
However, when resolving any type of ethical problem, communication is always best. In applied settings, ethics should be discussed openly and honestly, therefore resolving this type of issue with an internship supervisor should be viewed as part of the learning experience. Before the issue is raised, a student should consult the ethical guidelines so that he or she can resolve the conflict while adhering to the ethics code and educate colleagues on The code if they are unfamiliar with it.
Of course, this seems obvious. It is incumbent upon the psychologist to make it clear that the additional request is outside of his or her competence or training, if that is the case.
Students in applied settings also frequently encounter competence issues. After a student has performed well in an organization, managers within that organization tend to come to the student with additional tasks. Because internships or other applied experiences are mechanisms for students to learn different aspects of the field, the student will not be well-versed in a number of topics that arise, nor should the student be ashamed to let a supervisor know he or she is not competent in a certain area.
When encountered with a situation in which the student is not comfortable with the current competence level, the student should be upfront and honest. If the organization is insistent about the student completing the task, the student should consult the supervisor for guidance.
If psychologists are being paid by the organization for other work, their objectivity in evaluating a new selection system might be compromised, and the success of that selection system might be related to keeping their employment. Not all multiple relationships are unethical. Many psychologists might be asked to do work for an organization because they know individuals who work there, or are even related to employees of the organization. It is the responsibility of the psychologist to evaluate multiple relationships and be cautious of possible conflicts of interest.
If a conflict of interest does arise, it is incumbent upon the psychologists to remove themselves from that situation. Students in applied settings may also encounter dual relationships. Most students hear this term and automatically assume it means a dual professional and romantic relationship.
However as the example above demonstrates, dual relationships include many more situations than romantic relationships.