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Polygamy was practiced by leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Although this Manifesto did not dissolve existing plural marriages, relations with the United States markedly improved after , such that "The 'Leading Sisters': A Female Hierarchy in Nineteenth Century Mormon Society". The status of women in Mormonism has been a source of public debate since before the death In , Relief Society president Emmeline B. Wells said that women should speak for themselves, and if Women in polygamous relationships at the time described the experience as a great trial that taught them self-denial. Equally important is Mormonism's complex and embattled relation to both the society from which it emerged and to the evangelicalism that was such a dominant.
A controversial doctrine Mormons believe that God's plan of salvation includes nonbelievers and believers, as well as those who have never heard of Jesus Christ.
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They believe that members of other faiths will have the opportunity to learn the true gospel of Jesus Christ after their earthly deaths. They will be able to accept or reject that gospel. Members of other faiths will also have the chance to accept or reject the covenants and ordinances of salvation performed for them by proxy on earth. Useful quotations Gerald E Jones wrote: I believe that we owe respect to all churches and organisations that lead men to act more righteously than they otherwise might, even if they don't hold the keys of salvation and even if there is much error in their teachings.
Latter-day Saints should not look on other churches as totally false. Poland Act For the most part, the rest of the United States considered plural marriage offensive. Lincoln made a statement that he had no intentions of enforcing it if the LDS Church would not interfere with him, and so the matter was laid to rest for a time. But rhetoric continued, and polygamy became an impediment to Utah being admitted as a state. Brigham Young preached in that if Utah will not be admitted to the Union until it abandons polygamy, "we shall never be admitted.
They were frustrated by the consolidation of the members. Forming the Liberal Partynon-Mormons began pushing for political changes and sought to weaken the church's dominance in the territory. In SeptemberYoung was indicted for adultery due to his plural marriages.
Cannona prominent leader in the church, was denied a non-voting seat in the U. House of Representatives due to his polygamous relations. This revived the issue of polygamy in national politics. Even if people did not practice polygamy, they would have their rights revoked if they confessed a belief in it.
In August, Rudger Clawson was imprisoned for continuing to cohabit with wives that he married before the Morrill Act. Cannon inarrested under the Edmunds—Tucker Act. Inthe Edmunds—Tucker Act allowed the disincorporation of the LDS Church and the seizure of church property; it also further extended the punishments of the Edmunds Act. In July of the same year, the U. Attorney General filed suit to seize all church assets. The church was losing control of the territorial government, and many members and leaders were being actively pursued as fugitives.
Without being able to appear publicly, the leadership was left to navigate "underground". Following the passage of the Edmunds—Tucker Act, the church found it difficult to operate as a viable institution. After visiting priesthood leaders in many settlements, church president Wilford Woodruff left for San Francisco on September 3,to meet with prominent businessmen and politicians.
He returned to Salt Lake City on September 21, determined to obtain divine confirmation to pursue a course that seemed to be agonizingly more and more clear. As he explained to church members a year later, the choice was between, on the one hand, continuing to practice plural marriage and thereby losing the temples"stopping all the ordinances therein," and, on the other, ceasing plural marriage in order to continue performing the essential ordinances for the living and the dead.
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Woodruff hastened to add that he had acted only as the Lord directed: I should have let all the temples go out of our hands; I should have gone to prison myself, and let every other man go there, had not the God of heaven commanded me to do what I do; and when the hour came that I was commanded to do that, it was all clear to me. The following morning, he reported to some of the general authorities that he had struggled throughout the night with the Lord regarding the path that should be pursued.
The result was a word handwritten manuscript which stated his intentions to comply with the law and denied that the church continued to solemnize or condone plural marriages.
The document was later edited by George Q. Cannon of the First Presidency and others to its present words. On October 6,it was presented to the Latter-day Saints at the General Conference and unanimously approved.
While many church leaders in regarded the Manifesto as inspired, there were differences among them about its scope and permanence. Contemporary opinions include the contention that the manifesto was more related to an effort to achieve statehood for the Utah territory.
As a result, over plural marriages were performed between and Second Manifesto It was not untilunder the leadership of church president Joseph F. Smiththat the church completely banned new plural marriages worldwide. The ambiguity was ended in the General Conference of Aprilwhen Smith issued the " Second Manifesto ", an emphatic declaration that prohibited plural marriage and proclaimed that offenders would be subject to church discipline. It declared that any who participated in additional plural marriages, and those officiating, would be excommunicated from the church.
Those disagreeing with the Second Manifesto included apostles Matthias F. Cowley and John W. Taylorwho both resigned from the Quorum of the Twelve.
Cowley retained his membership in the church, but Taylor was later excommunicated. Although the Second Manifesto ended the official practice of new plural marriages, existing plural marriages were not automatically dissolved. Many Mormons, including prominent church leaders, maintained existing plural marriages into the s and s.
Lyman was cohabitating with a woman other than his legal wife. As it turned out, in Lyman had begun a relationship which he defined as a polygamous marriage. Unable to trust anyone else to officiate, Lyman and the woman exchanged vows secretly. Byboth were in their seventies. Lyman was excommunicated on November 12,at age Modesty in Dress and Its Relationship to the Church," which was reprinted in the Church News and defined modesty for Mormons in the latter half of the 20th century.
Kimball said that Latter-day Saint women should have a unique style of their own that did not include strapless dresses, shorts, form-fitting sweaters, or dresses with low necks or backs. Immediately following the talk, many women changed their wardrobes to conform to Kimball's instructions and called their wardrobes "kimballized", but the church issued no formal dress standards.
Inthe Mutual Improvement Association published a pamphlet on modesty in general.
It advised women against "flaunt[ing] one's figure," and also emphasized modesty in speech and conduct. A Improvement Era column counseled teenage girls to keep their clothing clean and ironed.
Short skirts, beards and long hair for men, and dirty clothing became popular. Fearing that the counterculture fashions would negatively influence morals, leaders began to advise on dress codes more stringently. Men received instruction to avoid long hair and beards because of their association with counterculture; women's dress standards were created to protect their virtue.How Powerful Is The Mormon Church?
The miniskirt in particular was denounced as unfashionable as well as immodest. The church's modesty rhetoric in the s and 70s also encouraged women to dress femininely especially as androgynous styles became more popular.
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A more feminine dress style was associated with acceptance of traditional feminine gender roles of the s. It prescribed skirts that covered the kneecaps and forbade low-cut, strapless, and low-backed attire. It encouraged women to "always try to look feminine" and stated that slacks rather than skirts or dresses were appropriate only for hiking and other sports.
The For the Strength of Youth pamphlet denounced soiled and sloppy clothing, and said that women should not be in public with her hair in curlers. Inthe pamphlet was changed to state that skirts should be "of modest length.
Oaks published a formal dress code for Brigham Young University inwhich allowed pant suits but no other pants for women. Jeans were allowed inand knee-length shorts in A specific prohibition against tattoos and multiple earrings was added in Sister missionaries also received special instruction in dressing professionally starting in The Church published a dress code for its own employees inwhich did not allow pant suits.
The La Canada first ward in California sewed modest swimsuits for themselves in Some members feel that when leaders emphasize dressing modestly to young women, they only emphasize the sexualization of women's bodies and encourage women to judge each other by their physical appearance. A dissertation by Marleen Williams found a few differences in how Mormon women experience depression.