relationship that humans are worthy of a higher level of ethical treatment. . To answer this question one must first consider the goals of animal research. To the . animals, ethics, ethics of caring, human-animal bond, research animals In this article, I examine some ethical questions posed by human-research animal relationships. .. This goal can be accomplished in several ways. Acquire, care for, use and dispose of animals in compliance with current federal, and the goal is justified by its prospective scientific, educational or applied value. Methods and welfare considerations in behavioral research with animals.
This increased understanding of the animals can lead to empathy for them, which builds a bridge between staff and animals. The editors of Webster's Dictionary recognize that understanding is essential to the development of a relationship.
Talking to the Animals For training programs to be successful, there must be effective communication between the trainer and the animal. In general, a positive reinforcement paradigm will promote achievement of training goals. However, it is not uncommon for the trainer also to use verbal commands and praise during behavioral shaping sessions. Staff may also use verbal communication as they would with a pet animal. Human-animal communication also occurs outside the context of training regimens.
For example, staff provide special food treats to the animals while using species-relevant visual and auditory cues that signal behaviors or intentions. As little as 6 min of staff time each week spent handing out food treats to rhesus monkeys while the individual exhibits submissive or affiliative behaviors e. Communication with animals should not be restricted to the larger laboratory species. Hart notes that a newsletter on pet rats included in its first issue a discussion of teaching a rat to come to its name.
Although the capacity for laboratory animals to understand verbal communication has not been defined fully, there is sufficient anecdotal information to suggest that verbal communication can be effective with a variety of animals. Clearly more research is needed in this area with other laboratory species. It should not be construed that laboratory personnel principally talk to the animals in their care only during training sessions.
Indeed, the fact that staff frequently name animals indicates that names are serving as verbal reference points—not only between personnel discussing an animal but also between the staff member and the laboratory animal. The staff member may say something to the animal while handing it food treats, cleaning its cage, or working with it during a clinical or experimental procedure.
Veterinarians commonly speak to the animals they are handling and offer the animals some comfort by using a soothing tone of voice. Beck and Katcher have shown that much of the verbal communication between people and animals is in the form of simple questions—asking how or what the animal is doing, whether it is hungry, or what it wants.
Frequently the pitch of the voice is similar to that used when talking to an infant. Interestingly, research has shown that talking to animals can reduce a person's stress and blood pressure Friedmann et al. The sharing that occurs naturally during communication and the enhanced feeling of well-being experienced by individuals talking to animals are additional building blocks for a bond to form between staff and laboratory animals. Role of Regulations and Guidelines in Fostering the Bond Since their inception, federal laws and policies aimed at protecting animals have reflected the public's concern for the humane treatment of animals.
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Laws and policies designed to protect laboratory animals frequently do so in ways that facilitate the creation of a relationship or bond between the animals and facility staff. Not only does this statement establish a baseline for the appropriate use of analgesics, but it also encourages scientific staff to identify their own feelings with those of animals.
Among the amendments to the Animal Welfare Act was a mandate to provide for nonhuman primates an environment that promotes their psychological well-being.
In subsequent years, the scientific community and different animal care staff have developed and implemented numerous methods of providing environmental enrichment. In general, these methods have resulted in increased interaction between the animals and their caregivers. Staff may be engaged in maintaining the enrichment devices and in monitoring the interactions of the animals with the enrichment devices to ensure animal safety and to verify the efficacy of the enrichment technique s.
Overall, an enrichment program requires more staff time with the animals; however, including personnel in the design of enrichment techniques is an important element of the behavioral management program because this activity can be stimulating and mutually rewarding for animal care staff and animals Roberts It is also possible to assign the care staff the responsibility for assessing the results of their enrichments, which further increases the time personnel and animals spend together.
Indeed, Roberts encourages inclusion of this evaluation time in the care staff's work schedule so it is not displaced by other duties. Staff may vary enrichments to accommodate the specific needs manifested by individual animals and learn which animals use which devices i. These staff members have such a thorough knowledge of the animals in their care that they can describe and distinguish the interactions of individual animals with their enrichments.
When animals are housed in pairs or groups for purposes of social enrichment, animal care staff similarly know which animal is dominant and which is subordinate; and they usually know when the relationship between animals is changing. As mentioned above, this depth of understanding contributes to bond development. This program involves residents of a nursing home in the preparation of enrichment food treats. In return, the ambulatory seniors tour the facility and become acquainted with the animals they are helping, and the nonambulatory seniors view videotapes of the animals consuming the food treats.
There are international guidelines for use and care of animals in scientific procedures, which references have been made to some of them in this paper. One of these guidelines is represented by the National Advisory Committee for Laboratory Animal Research NAC LAR, Singaporewhich seems to launch concise yet comprehensive considerations about the use and care of animals for scientific and research purposes.
The NACLAR guidelines set out the responsibilities of all the sections involved in using and care of animals for research goals, according to accepted scientific, ethical and legal guidelines. These international guidelines are classified into three parts that should be considered together as a comprehensive document: The concept of the principles describes the 3Rs-Replacement, Reduction and Refinement.
The limitation of the principles consist all aspects of the care and use of animals for research and scientific goals including their use in teaching, field trials, environmental studies, research, diagnosis, product testing, and the production of biological products 23.
This part describes the responsibilities of institutions, scientists and persons who are involved in the care and use of animals for research and scientific goals. All scientific facilities which house and use animals for research goals will have to utilize according to the Guidelines to qualify for licensing from the Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority AVA. The IACUC is responsible for the assessment and evaluation of animal care and use programs of an institution, and is responsible for confirming that the care and use of animals for research goals and all animal experimental methods are in compliance with the guidelines.
Under the guidelines, all institutions with scientific facilities have to establish their own IACUC to assume this function.
This includes the scope of the core curriculum and the relevant core competencies, such as specific workshops for animal procedures. The Guidelines consider all animal users have to undergo appropriate training before initiation of any procedure using animals 24.
The main animal welfare regulations in Islam include considering to their natural needs, such as water, food and a suitable place to live, their living and mental condition, good health and avoidance of causing them pain, distress, or harm and unnecessary termination of their lives.
These should be considered carefully by the people who work with these creatures 5. For this study, some international and Islamic resources which were relavant to dealing with animals were collected via searching online papers and eBooks, primarily or as borrowing the books from the library, secondarily are mentioned in reference section.
Thence, the resources based on subjects were classified and summarized, and finally, all the extracted points were reviewed by experts familiar with Islamic and ethical issues. Some international guidelines and Islamic considerations regarding welfare of the animals used in research or teaching, have been collected that the most important of them are outlined below. International Guidelines of using Animals in Scientific Procedures Animal experiments should be designed only after due consideration of animal health and the advancement of knowledge on humans or animals weighed against the potential impacts on the welfare of the animals.
Researchers should treat animals as sentient and must consider their proper care and use and the avoidance or minimization of discomfort, distress, or pain as imperatives. Replacement of animal experimentation with alternative methods such as mathematical models, computer simulation and in vitro biological systems, which replace or complement the use of animals must be considered before embarking on any procedure involving use of animals.
Reduction in the number of animals used which means minimum number of animals required to obtain scientifically valid results.
Furthermore, scientific projects involving the use of animals must not be repeated or duplicated unnecessarily.
Refinement of projects and techniques used to minimize impact on animals which means: Animal housing and management Maintenance facilities of animals must be accurately designed, constructed, equipped and maintained to access a well standard of animal care and should follow acceptable standards of animal welfare for the particular species concerned and should fulfill scientific requirements.
In identifying the standards of animal care, the criterion should be animal well-being rather than mere ability to survive under the adverse conditions such as environmental extremes or high population densities 8. Veterinary care Institutions should establish and operate adequate veterinary care, prepared by the attending veterinarian which includes: The presence of appropriate facilities, equipment, personnel, and services to execute the guiding principles; using appropriate procedures to control diseases e.
The project proposals must describe a procedure designed to assure that discomfort, distress or pain to animals will be minimized or avoided. The researchers must provide written assurance that the activities do not unnecessarily duplicate previous experiments Projects which may cause more than momentary distress or pain to the animals will: Personnel conducting procedures on the species being maintained or studied will be appropriately qualified and trained in those procedures. Procedures that involve surgery include appropriate provision for pre operative and post-operative care of the animals according to established veterinary medical practices.Unbelievable Friendship! People and Wild Animals - Compilation 2017
No animal will be used in more than one experiment unless justified for scientific reasons by the researcher 11 Responsibilities of researchers Researchers who use animals for scientific goals have a moral obligation to deal with the animals humanely and consider their welfare when designing the projects. Before any animal experiment begins, investigators should submit a proposal to the IACUC to demonstrate that the procedure will comply with the guiding principles.
Moreover, the researchers must satisfy the IACUC of their competence to execute the techniques described in the experiment. The most important responsibilities of researchers in an animal experiment include: Minimize pain and distress: Investigators must be familiar with the normal behavior patterns of the animal species chosen. Prevent unacceptable study end-points: When death cannot be avoided, the procedures must be designed to result in the deaths of as few animals as possible Avoid repeated use of animals in experiments: Minimize duration of experiments: Using appropriate euthanasia method: These procedures must avoid distress, be reliable and produce rapid loss of consciousness without pain until death occurs 14 — Philosophers argue among themselves as to which factors should be considered morally relevant e.
However, by and large, they concur that characteristics such as gender, human skin color, or how cute an animal is should not count.
Two schools of thought have dominated contemporary philosophical discussion over the moral status of an animal. Peter Singer, author of the enormously influential book Animal Liberationbases his view of animal protection on utilitaritanism, a view that emphasizes the consequences of moral action. Singer argues that nonhuman animals should not be eaten, kept in zoos, or, under most conditions, used in research.
His argument for animal protection is based on his belief that animals are capable of experiencing pain and pleasure sentience and thus have an equal interest in their own lives. His logic is rigorous; his advocacy of animals is not based on the fact that puppies have big eyes and dolphins have endearing smiles. In contrast, Tom Reganauthor of The Case for Animal Rightstakes a deontological approach to the welfare of animals. Deontologists base their ethics on conformity to rationally derived rules rather than on the consequences of an action.
Although Singer and Regan disagree over the philosophical basis of animal protection, the arguments of both philosophers are rooted in logic rather than sentiment. Nowhere do they argue or imply that we should treat some animals differently simply because we have special relationships with them.
In short, traditional ethical perspectives on the treatment of animals shed little light on the moral consequences of personal human-animal bonds, including those in laboratories.
Burgess-Jackson and Rollin also accept the notion that some species possess intrinsic properties, which gives them moral standing. However, they also make a convincing argument that we have additional obligations to some animals based on the fact that we have personal relationships with them. Nell Noddings takes a similar tact. She believes that fairness and impartiality should not be the critical components of ethical decision making.
Rather, she holds that morality ultimately stems from the emotion of caring. In this context, Noddings shares the views of Carol Gilligana psychologist who is more interested in the moral principles we carry in our heads than in the abstract principles of normative ethics.
Gilligan believes that men and women approach moral problems differently. She postulates that although men think of morality primarily in terms of justice, the moral thinking of women is couched in terms of caring.
Gilligan's thesis has received the considerable attention of both scholars and the public. However, recent studies of sex differences have cast doubt on her thesis, and it appears that both sexes can and do incorporate both caring and justice orientations when making ethical judgments Turiel Galvin and Herzogfor example, found no sex differences in the factors that college students used when evaluating a series of hypothetical animal research protocols.
Noddings incorporates the caring model into a general ethical theory and asserts that moral sensitivities are rooted in interpersonal relationships. Because Noddings is concerned with the ethical responsibilities incumbent on caregivers, her ideas are particularly relevant to the ethical implications of human-animal bonds.
Noddings believes that we do have moral obligations toward some animals— the ones with whom we have personal relationships. Thus, her cat Puffy has moral standing because she and Noddings have a relationship. Puffy's elevated moral status, according to Noddings, does not extend to her neighbor's cat.
Predictably, Noddings does not think she has a general moral duty directed toward other species; for example, she feels absolutely no obligation to rats. I am not prepared to care for it. I feel no relation to it. An obvious problem with this view is that it is open to the bugaboo of most ethicists—inconsistency.
An ethical system in which a creature is afforded enhanced moral status simply because someone happens to form a bond with it violates the principle of impartiality.
It is true that Noddings' ethical theory has shortcomings in the realm of consistency.
Consider the case of Helen, a supervisor in the animal facility at a large veterinary school. As is common in veterinary training facilities, students practice surgical techniques on healthy dogs. In the past, animals were the subjects of repeated student surgeries current practice in most schools is to euthanize a laboratory animal after a single operation.
The veterinary school where Helen works houses several dozen dogs at a time for the practice surgeries. The dogs are sometimes kept in the facility for several months, ample time for the technicians to form relationships with them.
It is her job to select the animals for terminal surgery. She finds this task wrenching. It is particularly difficult because the dogs enjoy social contacts with the technicians. It is difficult to derive philosophically coherent criteria that she should use in picking one dog over another. Drawing them by random number would seem the fairest method.
Factors such as whether a dog barks a lot or is sloppy with its food or is cute do not seem to fit the criteria of morally relevant. However, in reality, these factors are exactly what Helen takes into account.
After consulting with the other technicians, she makes her pick. The nuisance animals go first, and the dogs with whom the caregivers have bonded go last.
Moral Conflicts in Laboratories More often than not, moral dilemmas are the result of good people trying to do the right thing when the right thing is unclear. Small animal veterinarians are examples. Many of their professional ethical issues stem from the fact that what is in the best interest of the client the owner may not be what is best for the patient the animal Tannenbaum Animal care technicians are caught in a similar dilemma.
On the one hand, the technician's allegiance lies with the people for whom he or she works—the senior scientists, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students who need the animals for their research. On the other hand, the technician's mandate is also to care for the animals, to ensure their health and, increasingly, their psychological well-being. Technicians know what their job is, and they know who pays their salary.