What is an example of a spurious relationship

Examples of Spurious Relationships | Utopia – you are standing in it!

what is an example of a spurious relationship

Okay, this is where presentations of spurious correlation usually stop. students to come up with examples of spurious correlation based on. This webpage is the best one I know about spurious regression examples. Spurious Correlations I really like this one: # of people who drowned by falling into. An example of a spurious relationship can be illuminated by examining a city's ice cream sales. These sales are highest when the rate of drownings in city.

Examples[ edit ] A well-known case of a spurious relationship can be found in the time-series literature, where a spurious regression is a regression that provides misleading statistical evidence of a linear relationship between independent non-stationary variables. In fact, the non-stationarity may be due to the presence of a unit root in both variables.

what is an example of a spurious relationship

See also Spurious correlation of ratios. An example of a spurious relationship can be seen by examining a city's ice cream sales. These sales are highest when the rate of drownings in city swimming pools is highest.

what is an example of a spurious relationship

To allege that ice cream sales cause drowning, or vice versa, would be to imply a spurious relationship between the two. In reality, a heat wave may have caused both.

The heat wave is an example of a hidden or unseen variable, also known as a confounding variable. Another commonly noted example is a series of Dutch statistics showing a positive correlation between the number of storks nesting in a series of springs and the number of human babies born at that time.

Spurious relationship

Of course there was no causal connection; they were correlated with each other only because they were correlated with the weather nine months before the observations. The assumption is that dancing caused them to throw up, or vice-versa yeah, it sounds gross. But the unseen variable here is drinking excess alcohol, which causes one to throw up as well as dance like a maniac.

what is an example of a spurious relationship

Of course, there is no correlation. The reason here is probably the morose weather, which causes her to become lethargic, and also cause road accidents. The general assumption is that females are attracted to these students because they are athletes. There is no such correlation though, the fact is that athletes have muscular bodies the third variablefemales are attracted to their strong personality, and hence the misconception. The fact is, politicians and political parties generally reside in urban areas, and salaries and costs tend to be higher in the cities.

There is no correlation between excess population and the crime rate though, the fact is, when more tourists arrive, the population naturally increases, and tourists fall victims to petty crimes like theft by the local public, hence the correlation.

what is an example of a spurious relationship

This correlation may very well be spurious, for there is no evidence that the more you prepare, the better your answer your tests. It is just a generalization. After all, if students are smart enough, they write better answers even little practice.

The unseen variable here is where the student prepares. If the students prepare together in the house, they are bound to get distracted easily and will hamper their preparation.

Spurious relationship

They will also focus and concentrate less on the subject, which leads to poor grades. On the contrary, when they prepare in a quiet environment, like the library, they tend to concentrate better, and so, they write their paper better.

what is an example of a spurious relationship

No such connection exists; the size of the hands depend on genes.